Sunday, July 3, 2022

The Heterodoxy Club

TL;DR -- The Village in New York was early involved with fomenting change. An example was in the early 1900s when illustrious women worked for suffrage. This is an example of cultural concerns that we will pay attention to. A motivation, naturally, is the New England connection. We look at a few of the individuals who are associated with the related events. 

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A recent issue of the WSJ had a book review that caught our interest for several reasons. One of these is that of the ladies involved, many were of New England heritage. That gets out attention. Too, the location for meetings was Greenwich Village which still had a similar aura almost a century later. Then, there was the subject which was the rights of women. The group that was formed had an interesting name: Heterodoxy club. There can be a lot said about that theme at some point. The group met from the 1910s to the 1940s. 

For now, let's name a few of the women involved and note their association with New England. Our list comes from an education site, ThoughtCo. A more comprehensive list is available at Wikipedia

Charlotte Perkins
Gilman
Sara Josephine Baker (WikiTree

Crystal Eastman (WikiTree

Charlotte Perkins Gilman (WikiTree)

Marie Jenny Howe (Wikipedia)

Alice Kimball (WikiTree) 

Amy Lowell (WikiTree)

Ruth Pickering Pinchot (WikiTree

Doris Stevens (Wikipedia

In the list, we point to the WikiTree Profile for the person if there was one so as to aid a look at their pedigree. If there was nothing on WikiTree, we used the Wikipedia material. 

We have many themes to cover. Of late, we have looked in depth at the carving of the land as the world of New England expanded west. But, we will pay attention to cultural issues, too, such as this topic which requires continual attention gong forward. 

Remarks: Modified: 07/04/2022

07/04/2022 --  Added Mary Melissa Hoadley Dodge. Then, remove the Mary who moved to London. There was a Mary Dodge there. Who was she?

Tuesday, June 28, 2022

Edward Holyoke

TL;DR -- We now have the Heads covered up to the time of the Revolution and beyond. Everyone is gearing up for the celebrations (DAR, SAR, and others). We can look at that first period more closely now, say from the beginning to the split with England. Then, there will be a couple more periods: 1812's continuing conflict with England, the frontier (including the Civil War), and the latter part of the 19th century. We have already seen that Harvard's experiences match up well with our generational view that will be in the focus for a bit.  

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As we finish our look at the Heads of Harvard (Wikipedia), we will start to pull together a timeline that includes the threads here in terms of generations and add in information related to major themes which are influential today. Bringing in Edward Holyoke (Wikipedia) will allow us to look at the period before the Revolution. But there is an unexpected category to discuss: corporal punishment (see below). 

Edward was of the fourth generation (WikiTree) of a family with a New England pedigree. His family had gone west and helped start Springfield in Hamden County. Edward went to Harvard and was associated for a couple of decades with a church in Marblehead (Essex County). Samuel Cheever had invited Edward to come be a Pastor. 

With respect to history, the Revolution's generation was the fifth with leadership by the fourth. Many of these leaders were at Harvard when Edward was President: 
    Samuel Adams (A.B. 1740), James Otis (A.B. 1743), Jonathan Mayhew (A.B. 1744), Thomas Cushing (A.B. 1744), James Bowdoin (A.B. 1745), John Hancock (A.B. 1754), John Adams (A.B. 1755), Joseph Warren (A.B. 1759) and Josiah Quincy Jr. (A.B. 1763). 
Edward was also associated with changing the "intellectual climate" through several means such as having a focus on merit rather than pedigree, stressing scholarship, and removing flogging (which was a very much unanticipated theme). With regard to the last, Eaton ran into issues due to being abusive. In her article titled "The Dilemma of Corporal Punishment at Harvard College" that appeared in the History of Education Quarterly ( 1974, Cambridge University), K. C. Moore looks at the issue which is easy to "pass over" for several reasons. With respect to the Eaton incident, one might make comparison with other situations such as the U.S. Navy (and other organizations of the like). We have an eye witness account by Richard Henry Dana (Two Years Before the Mast), who had been at Harvard, of a flogging at sea almost two hundred years later. 

Remarks: Modified: 06/28/2022

06/28/2022 -- 
 

Thursday, June 23, 2022

A Ride to Kansas

TL;DR -- Edward Fitch left his home and set out west to join the Massachusetts effort at establishing Kansas as a free state. We look, briefly, at Edward's New England pedigree and his experiences in defending the abolitionist's view during the times of 'Bleeding Kansas' and into the Civil War. Edward was killed in the Lawrence raid of 1863 leaving a wife and three children. This type of thematic post will be more common as research results appear over the next few decades. After the revolution, things expanded upon several fronts, simultaneously. To further more full looks, we include an image related to the 

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Today's topic focuses on one individual who was out west just prior to the Civil War and who has a solid New England pedigree. We recently read an article published by the New England Historical Society (Apr 2022) that is an example of what we will see more of: Edward Fitch, a Massachusetts Martyr in Bleeding Kansas. We point to the article as it covers the experience of the early settlers of Lawrence KS about which we have had several posts. Notice sections on Bleeding Kansas, The Kansas-Nebraska Act, Staking a Claim, and others. 

The main character is Edward Payson Fitch (WikiTree) who went to Lawrence with the third party of the New England Emigrant Aid Company. The Kansas Historical Society sponsored research for a report by Louise Barry: The Emigrant Aid Company Parties of 1854

The NEHS article on Edward Fitch references the work of the Kansas Historical Society and details events as reported by Edward and others. This type of regional conflict needs more attention; for instance, of those who arrived in KS, some returned while others went out west. Edward stayed and farmed. Also, he contributed to the advancement of Lawrence as a city. As mentioned, Lawrence was burned in the turmoil of the Civil War. Edward was killed and left a widow and kids. The article has photos of his wife and children. 
 
In an earlier post, we mentioned that Col. T. W. Higginson had gone out to Kansas with a group in 1856. He wrote of parts of his experience with posts to the New York Tribute; his reports were collected into A Ride through Kansas

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As we look at the 400ths over several decades to come, we will see topics brought to fore that were not covered before due to several reasons. One of these dealt with technology and its absence which is no longer a factor. In fact, we have too much technology being misused too often. Be that as it may, too little or too much is an interesting problem to have. Let enjoy the new situation where topics that motivate posts like this one will be a common theme. 

The 5th generation bore the onus of the split. The 250th of that is coming up (SAR/DAR). We have had several posts on that theme. Stepping forward with the generations, we have to deal with a much  larger framework, an example of which is the Frontier Century. Our first look at that considered the early explorers many of whom were Canadian (before the split, it was the same colony) with the far west being introduced, mainly through the fur trade. Then, we had several posts dealing with the carving of the U.S. Interior that happened over more than a century. 

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During the earlier times, Pres Andrew Jackson decided to move American Indians from the east coast to the wide spaces of the west. Oklahoma gets more than attention in this matter than does its northern neighbor. But, Kansas has as much involvement in the historic aspects as one can see by things like having a Cherokee County. Too, there has been a lot of research related to the impacts of the choice by Jackson. We recently looked at an early Mission for the Osage that is still extant having started in the early 1830s.  

Remarks: Modified: 06/23/2022

06/23/2022 --  

Tuesday, June 21, 2022

400th, finally

TL;DR -- It's been a long time coming, that is, the 400th, albeit Florida (New Spain) had its 500th. So, we do a little recap. Technology now differs tremendously from when the Salem group did their little pageant. We can jump the waters to research. Interesting articles are popping up. Veracity? Provenance? Those are continual issues needing constant attention. The days of dreaming of internet heaven might have produced somethings of note but not as much as we would like. Chimeras abound. Despite all of that, the 400ths (across the board in MA, we are talking decades of partying) ought to be fun and full of promise of better things to come. 

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Our first post on the 400th was early on our website: Recent 400th Anniversaries. That had been motivated by reading about the 300th anniversary. And, of course, we had to mention Florida's 500th. Then, as time went along, the Pilgrim's 2020 came along. 

With that, there was cooperative efforts between those here and those in the older realm. Earlier, we saw Virginia with it look back. But, the difference now is technology. So, expect a much wider variance in activities, analysis, and reports. An example is the post at Enduring Gloucester by Mary Ellen Lepionka who is researching the history of the Cape Ann endeavor. That post gave us a chance to make comment in which we pointed to Gardner Research and its efforts. 

One thing that we did was try to establish some notion of what we know. That effort started in 2012 after we got a little bit of experience. There was lots of ground to cover. By 2014, we had attention brought to Margaret as mother of the children that we know. At the same time, we made contributions on WikiTree to Thomas Gardner's profile and that of his descendants. Too, we attempted a FAQ that needs updating. 

As said, there is a lot to do. One task will be reviewing work over the past decade and firming up the material due to the changes that occur as one studies a topic. Some of the earlier references are not longer of the same identifying scheme (results of what can be called refactoring) or are missing (or perhaps moved). 

So, it is the first day of summer and 1/2 of the year is gone. Weymouth's 400th was this year. According to some, Cape Ann (via Gloucester) will be next year. There may have been people there before; definitely, we have seen 1624 used, as well. So, that is something that will be firmed up this time around. As in, the 200th was of the time of the period between the Revolution and the 1812 conflict. Going back, the 100th was just post the Salem madness associated with witches. 

Then, the 300th? WWI and the Spanish Flu. For the Gardners, Dr. Frank's works stand tall. His The Massachusetts Magazine was phenomenal and will get more attention. He got a lot of old Salem to participate and contribute to that effort. But, 1917/8 was the last issue after a decade of continual work. As we go forward from here (after a brief pause that was not a hiatus), we will attempt to be several things including a clearing house for research, note counsel on things Cape Ann and Gardner, at the forefront of using technology to close information gaps, and more. Part of the regular activity will be looking at current themes. 

Here are two that came from the same search related to "Dorchester Company - Cape Ann - arrival" a (reminder: this is Google'ish; results will differ by the search facility or parameter mix). There are so many hits to wade through, that we'll have to figure out a newer method (hint, ML might be of interest - without the AIn't baggage). 

So, on Roger Conant, we have a new site and a recent post: 56. ‘A whirlwind and wonderful trip’ to Roger Conant’s birthplace. With photos galore, this deals with the visit by a descendant to Roger's stomping grounds. Okay, the Mayflower group had done that. One thing that came from the effort was coordination with regard to what was worth seeing as well as historically established veracity (have to use that as Harvard will play heavy in our future schemes). 

Roger Conant
the Peacemaker
But, there was, too, this gem: Roger Conant on Cape Ann -- Part I: The Dorchester Company. It is from 2019 and by Mary Ellen Lepionka (noted above). It mentions the relationship between Rev. John White and Thomas Gardner which is an open issue in the sense of several views are extant, none of which have entirely proven their case. But, not to bother too much, as this is what John does; he has no ax to grind being of late-coming families (post the Civil War). Too, Ann has both Conant and Gardner (and many others) on her bundle of ancestors. 

Our conundrum, having looked at years of research and writing (all the back to Hubbard and before - plus the later stuff, say Anderson's work), what framework is there for dealing, more or less (and point in time - btw, that's not a waffle) permanently with regard to various factors such as provenance, with the subjects of such interest. You know, when we started there were lots of sites from the older days that looked to have interesting data. Well, wayback modes might apply. 

Otherwise, we are facing no more of a problem than any other discipline that has gone through adjustments brought by technology. 

BTW, the Conant site has some interesting pictures that we will use, with attribution. We have a recent example of a photo (western railroad theme) taken by the father of a member of a FB group for which we make full declaration of source; yet, he tells me that his father's photos have been used without any notice all over the place. Not on the topic? Wrong. We have messes that need attention in order to have a sustainable future, such as the one set by the likes of Thomas and Margaret Gardner. 

Remarks: Modified: 06/21/2022

06/21/2022 --

Monday, June 20, 2022

East meets west

TL;DR --  One thing that technology will allow us to do is keep up with the times and its events; too, though, if done right, we can tie together stories about matters in ways not possible before. In fact, as we have seen, we will be able to recreate (Meta's one good attribute, so far) events, and do so in ways that are almost real. On the other hand, we will see tragedy as well as triumphs. This is a case of the former. 

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We will have several themes which will be described as we organize our work. Technology will be an important one. In fact, we will have a separate blog for posts of a detailed nature. But, technology is also cultural, so we'll address those aspects here. This week, we saw Yellowstone River flooding in the area of Gardiner MT due to the combination of snow melt and heavy rain. On flat ground, we would say 'flash flood' which comes unexpectedly and is gone before you notice (unless you are in its path). What is noticed is the aftermath. Gardiner MT has an 'i' and is where Gardner River feeds the Yellowstone. 

Gardiner MT
before the Gardner River
went on a rampage

In that area, there are lots of New England names, such as Conant Creek, Harvard Mountain, and more than we want to look at now. Fly over the region with Google Maps and see what I mean. In most cases, what you are looking at was seen or even had footsteps put on by the early wanders. 

We wrote of the Gardner River under our theme of the early western life as influenced by the long arm of New England. We had been looking at U.S. rivers in toto, especially with a view to the major carving of the land that was managed, in part, out of St. Louis. We noted that Jedediah Strong Smith, an early guy, passed through that little burg. Johnson Gardner was of the same timeframe. The movie, The Revenant, is about another Gardner, but Johnson Gardner was there. We will explore more about these fellas and their peers, some of whom left their names on the landscape in a larger scope. Actually, the following generation was of Bridger, Pike, and a whole lot more. 

Before going on, here is material related to Johnson Gardner, the so-called Mountain MenGardiner MTJedediah (WikiTree; Jed has a huge following out of Berkeley CA), and more, such as Grizzly Adams (cousin of the ones who were husband to and son of Abigail). 

In this post, several names have been mentioned. We show family information via WikiTree when we can. Besides technology, and the early west (say, Lawrence KS as project of Massachusetts), we will look at nautical themes (the Carolinas, say). There will be more discussion about this. 

Following up, though, the Smithsonian wrote about Gateway Towns and what this flooding may mean. 

Remarks: Modified: 06/20/2022

06/20/2022 --

Saturday, June 11, 2022

No hiatus

TL;DR -- The last three years have been more active, partly due to Covid restrictions. Too, though, technology has shown us some new and potentially useful, or not, stuff. One thing on the plate going forward will be technology. What that means is still being discussed. 

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Lots going on. At the end of May, the pace of posts was keeping up with those of the past three years (2019, 2020, 2021) the last two of which were unique, many ways. There is no end of possible topics for research and reports. 

Adjustments, due to the times? Yes, that's a huge factor to address. One prime focus is on technology and its misuse which seems to be a common trait of humanity. The latest is the scene of several decades duration that accelerated recently with the arrival, finally one might say, of capable computing. Albeit, that one at the same time must add this, highly immature stuff all around. 

In particular is this AIn't phenomenon that has captured the imagination of many. At the same time, there have been too many new applications attempted whose ramifications are not known for us to claim that we are scientific. Willy nilly is more like it. 

Now, perturbations in the economy relate to these types of mania, the last two, in particular, had a technological flavor. This one will continue that trend. So, lots to watch and to attempt to learn from. 

One thing that computing brings is enhanced proof techniques whose adoptions would get genealogy out of its morass. Minor issue. DNA rattled those cages, a lot. But, it's not flawless, that scene. 

What is not without fault? Well, nothing, if we use the 'mote' example; there are several sources for this. 

The new scene is such that we really do not know. Look about, who is not casting in the wind in order to read the waves? I know, mixing things. It's intentional. 

We had hoped to be post-COVID, one location that I know of has had a jump of 4K cases in a week. One example of the new age are the many sites reporting data and making various judgments. That's to be expected, as we're humans and do that sort of thing. 

On a positive note, I see many articles and reports showing an emergence of a mature viewpoint. How to describe this? That is one of the things to tackle. Reducing the hype is one thing; but, more importantly, losing the aura of science fiction is more to be desired. Which means? Being more scientific in ways that balance the various necessary modes, such as engineering and technology. Oh yes, forgetting mathematics? Nope, those ones dropped several balls. We'll describe the situation. 

Remarks: Modified: 06/20/2022

06/20/2022 -- Added TL;DR line plus an image. 

Friday, June 3, 2022

Fifteen colonies

 TL;DR -- When Dr. Frank was working on his research, over one hundred years ago, the limitations of the time are apparent. Now, with the internet and its communications, we can do a much better job. Part of this will be covering the wide-spread of the U.S. and beyond. And, the Carolinas will be one focus. Fifteen colonies? Will be looked at next. 

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No doubt, our focus was New England, from the beginning, due to the Cape Ann connections. So, that perspective might be attributed to we being newbies to this type of research. However, it was not long before we were looking west and south. One pull was following New England movement thus, with Virginia being an early destination for people who kept moving. We learned early of some of the parallels between the two regions, especially those of the time of the Revolution (250th coming up). We will have a coming post on this theme. 

Recently, after running into a Boston-themed blog (once again; first saw it several years ago), we got to thinking of the regional comparisons. An event was the motivator: getting gunpowder from English stores. Turns out that there is a similar story in the south. One noted source is J. F. Dorman who wrote Adventurers of Purse and Person, Virginia, 1607-1624/25. He writes that George Jackson of Norfolk (later Williamsburg) is known to have accomplished such a feat. We will look into that further. 

J.F. Dorman, 
on Virginia/Bermuda connection

For now, we are leaving a comment about the Virginia connection since there were comments related to that before (the "Boston 1775" blog dates back to 2007). 

..., Pointer to comment made by TGS Researcher ... 

But, another issue comes to fore that had not been considered. We had been looking mainly at Virginia as a hub of entry. Then, we expected to be seeing migration south to the Carolinas. On looking more closely, we see two relationships that need attention. 

For one, Bermuda was connected with North Carolina; then the Bahamas were similarly associated with South Carolina. Our main view of the Bahamas was their use as a backdoor, early on, when someone wanted to leave and come over but could not get the required permission. So, they staged themselves through the Bahamas. However, now we know a little more and saw that some tried to get Bermuda involved in supporting the Patriots. Assuming there was similar efforts with the Bahamas, we could have had fifteen colonies rather than thirteen. Different dynamics? 

Incidentally, these historical bits come up from following families as they moved. Some can be confirmed, albeit the further west that one goes, the harder the chore. What we see, though, is that the clues are there: albeit, many east coast mindsets think of the woods outside of coastal New England as the frontier. 

We beg to differ: Frontier century

Back in the late 1800s and early 1900s, when Dr. Frank was working, he mainly did his own line plus those that he heard from. But, our work is finding people widely scattered. Case in point is the lowly grave out west of a descendant of the Mayflower crew as well as being of Cape Ann. We'll feature him in the next post. 

Remarks: Modified: 06/11/2022

06/11/2022 -- Added pointer to the comment to the Boston 1775 post on Bermuda as source for gunpowder, from the British store of such. 
 

Friday, May 27, 2022

Memorial Day, 2022

TL;DR --  We hope to continue having a post with a Memorial Day theme. Today, we look more closely at a region that is of interest for several reasons. It deals with an area west of St. Louis but not outside of the eastern part of the U.S. plains. 

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Our main focus had been New England, both north and south, from the early days. But, as time went by, people moved. Western migrations were a norm from the beginning. The access to water and the means to move upon it saw lots of traffic along the coast and across the seas. That is almost a given as New England has a nautical flavor. There will be a lot more work to do concerning the periods (several generations) prior to the Revolution (which is coming upon its 250th) which was our focus. But, the constraints of the viral outbreak came to be and brought a more local view to fore. 

Along with, we might add, came a more virtual way of operating. From the beginning, we had tried to tie pieces together whether it was getting Find A Grave profiles in order, keeping WikiTree up to date with respect to research results or such. As COVID made an impact, the benefits of virtual work became more apparent. In our Memorial Day, 2019 work, we attempted to find all siblings in one generation and got several records update. One of these was for a grave in a Veterans' cemetery in Saugus, MA where we requested that his wife's FAG profile be linked with that of the veteran. At the same time, we got WikiTree updated. As an aside, we have been using WT in order to have completion. In our Memorial Day, 2020 work, we mentioned missing graves which is a common theme and suggests lots of work to be done. For instance, in little Essex County of MA, a Trask family researcher noted dozens of graves moved without documentation. Then, our Memorial Day, 2021 work was related to the theme of going west. That has been a key area of research related to the upcoming 250th (D.A.R. and S.A.R.). 

This year, we will continue that theme. While researching up north, New France was the focus. As we looked at the west and the southwest, New Spain became of interest, especially its influence during the Revolution (New Spain's span). Then, we had to look at the various modes of transportation, say from the days of Jedediah Strong Smith to the time just after the automobile arose. And, the train is a major character in the story.

This brings up today's theme, an Osage Mission (FB: The Catholic Osage Mission). Earlier, one of our posts looked at the Katy - Western Railroad which went from the Texas Gulf Coast up to Kansas City and St. Louis and passes through several states including eastern Kansas and included an image of Parsons, KS. While browsing today, we saw an image of a cemetery that could have been anywhere but definitely reminded of many of those in New England. The photo was at this blog: A Catholic Mission. The area is not far from the Osarks, however hills run along this longitude from Texas up to Canada. Not far from this area, though, is the beginning of the large prairie which hampered those going west. 

St. Francis cemetery
St. Paul, KS

There is a lot to write about this site's topics as they match up with our interests. On one page in the blog, Zebulon Pike is quoted with a photo from the Flint Hills grassland area. We have had several posts, ourselves, dealing with the arduous travel including quotes from the party that founded Lawrence, KS as a Massachusetts project.


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We pulled out one individual, William White Graves (WikiTree), to look at in more detail due to the names of his parents. W.W. Graves was born in KY. His parents' heritage includes Virginia. Our interest, per usual, is to find links with families in New England north, even if these are of a collateral nature. 

In the periods prior to the Revolution, there was a major influx which we want to look at; though, the first 30 years (see Great Migration Project, NEHGS) involving immigrants from England has a major scope. Some of those who arrived in the early 1700s are on D.A.R.'s list of Patriots. Another area needing some attention would be the Carolinas (both North and South) and the Bahamas. 

On a cursory look, the region looked at in this post will offer lots of research opportunities in the sense of the history of the U.S., in toto, including details about the contributions of New Spain and New France. 

Remarks: Modified: 05/28/2022

05/28/2022 -- Earlier post on the Trail of Tears

Tuesday, May 24, 2022

Pony Express

TL;DR -- American stories can be real and interesting; most major themes are universal and apply across the scope of humanity. So, what's special? People, for one. Memorial Day is a time to reflect on that. Too, how things changed over the 400 years of the history starting with New England. The Pony Express is an example that happened right before the Civil War. It took several decades for the need to regular communication between the east coast and its leftie counterpart to come about. A way was developed for people to go from St. Louis to San Francisco. Arduously so. It took weeks. But, there were passengers. Meanwhile, in the north, young men went by horseback across the country in 10 days. That is, from St. Joseph MO to CA. Mind you, at that point, you are still a long way from the east coast. The Civil War disturbed the southern route which went north and displaced the Pony Express. We can follow their paths by car. In the south, ruts still exist from the coach traffic. The telegraph came in and changed things. Too though, post the Civil War, the U.S. finally got a transcontinental railroad establishd.  

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This post has several themes. One of them is technology on which we have had several posts, including a separate blog. The other deals with Memorial Day; our post, from 2021 looked at posts from 2020 and 2019. The Holiday, originally, had a focus on war casualties and changed to be more reflective, as a whole. Then, per usual, we look at people, mostly with a New England focus (Cape Ann, Essex County, and Massachusetts). 

Starting with the ponies and riders, we can use Bill Cody (Wikipedia, WikiTree) of western fame as an example rider. His family had gone west out of the New England. Skipping over some details, we know that his father was an abolitionist which brought turmoil into the lives of his family. After his father's death, Bill found work that led to being involved with the Pony Express

There is a lot of material on the subject, but this site (Riders of the Pony Express) has more details about riders than we see most places. Bill Cody was the most known. Many of these fellows did not have progeny and are forgotten. Some are mentioned on WikiTree without any details. At some point, perhaps, research will be done to fill in the missing pieces about the people. 

Lots is known of the geography and technology. The National Park Service offers interpretative guides for auto tours (self-guided).  

There were two technologies that interfered with the success of Pony Express. One dealt with regular coach traffic using horses which we discuss next. Then, there was the telegraph which could not carry mail but could relay information coast to coast, albeit not in today's quick mode.  

Two routes of mail

The graphic shows the routes taken by two means of carrying mail, prior to the Civil War. The red dots indicate the northern route, of the Pony Express, that went from St. Joseph MO to Sacramento CA. The blue dots show the Butterfield route which we address next. The Pony Express was faster with a smaller load while the southern route took days longer but could take some freight. 

Earlier, we mentioned a route from San Antonia TX to San Diego CA that was quite successful. We also looked at one New England family (Giddings, of Ipswich MA) that was involved. Later, this route was part of a route from St Louis MO to San Francisco CA. In the above graphic, this is the route depicted by the blue dots. The Butterfield approach was quite successful even with the difficulties of travel. But, the start of the Civil War threw in a few troubles. 

Texas closed their border to Butterfield access which interrupted the flow. Too, there was the contract by the U.S. Postal Service to deliver mail from the east coast to the west. The Butterfield line was doing fine with this and did not conflict with the northern delivery by the Pony Express. But, with inhibition of travel, a northern approach became necessary. 

Some had already been trying to take coaches along the same route of the ponies. The new requirements got that going regularly, so that the Central Overland route was established. With this method in process, the Pony Express saw a serious decline in its business. At the same time, there was the coming railroad which was several years away from completion. 

What did finally come about was the 1st Transcontinental Telegraph. It had started on the west coast and was coming east. As the gap was filled, the Pony Express had shortened routes to run which would be from the end of the eastern line to where the western line was in place. Once the telegraph became possible, the Pony Express ceased to be. 

However, the Overland approach? The railroad was completed toward the start of the 1870s. It replaced the transcontinental coach route, though regional coach routes continued into the mid-part of the 20th century. 

In this example, we see succeeding introduction of technology that replaces the former. Not abruptly, but gradually. That became easily seen and is part of life as we know it. The latest manifestation might be the slow adoption of the internet's ways until COVID forced normal ways to become either too hard or not capable at all. As we know, snail mail still is. We see lots of transportation modes in operation, from the fast (costly) to the slower (perhaps more economical) types. 

Besides looking further into the people of the Pony Express, we want to know more of the people involved the Overland approaches; that is, we want to know more of all types who were involved. We know that the telegraph was used for decades and still has a role. 

We also know that the 'flyover country' view is still there; too, we know that the great interior provided people who got things done when these were needed; these folks adapted through the changes in technology and economic realities. The story of America? You bet. 

Remarks: Modified: 05/25/2022

05/24/2022 -- 

Oldest universities, New Spain

TL;DR -- Getting away from geographical concerns, we started to look at how the intellectual landscape developed in New England which led to considering what happened through time. Given that focus and our brief survey of New Spain, we had to look at the Universities of that region. ... 

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Our focus is the new world as seen from New England, principally the northern part. Though, plenty of families went south permanently. Some may have returned or kept in touch. Many lost connections which was easy given the difficulties of travel. Except, the sea was a facilitator. Not only was there a conduit of new arrivals from the south, say via the Bahamas, but, some families had multiple households. Essentially, there is no end to these stories. 

At one type of top, there is education with the higher-order types reigning. So, we are looking at the History of Harvard. Doing so, means that we need to look at what was what in England (say, Cambridge which was the influencer of many who arrived here early). Too, we had to look at the situation through time, say the earliest and then a sampling of others from a western cluster: Schools, New England and beyond. Naturally, that led to consider all schools in terms of time: Oldest universities.  

Those were all from the English perspective. Now, let's consider New Spain's experience in this regard. There were institutions formed in both the 16th and the 17th centuries, including Mexico's 1551 establishment in Mexico City. It's interesting that there were not any in California or New Mexico.  

Given that Mexico borders the U.S. and played a huge role in the establishment of the southern border from Texas west to the Pacific, a closer look at Universities there would be of interest. We have Mexico City (1551) Yucatan (1624) and Guadalajara (1781) are not close, at all, being more than a thousand miles in distance over difficult territory. One thing that looking at New Spain can do is get the Northeast familiar with the rugged southwest: Jedediah Strong Smith, St. Louis to San Francisco by coach (not on rail), and others are an example. 

The closest university in New Spain that would be considered close to the U.S. would the Havana (1721). Given that New England was represented well in the Carribean, we will have to look further into possible family connections with that institution. 

Remarks: Modified: 05/24/2022

05/24/2022 -- Of course, New France comes into play. For now, Sorbonne is the oldest for France, in general. Later, we'll take a brief survey of New France's efforts in this matter. 

Monday, May 23, 2022

Oldest universities, New England

TL;DR -- We have been looking at the History of Harvard with respect to its parallels with the unfoldment of the U.S. over 400 years. In doing so, we are paying attention to families and events over time. Post Harvard, there have been lots of universities established. Many of these have family names. Some of them are of New England. Lots are of new comers. So, we pause to look at the first 10 institutions in order to have some notion of how and where we saw the initiations. 

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Earlier, we looked at Schools, New England and beyond with a focus on the U.S. and with an intent to broaden the scope in order to account for 400 years of history, especially, the latter part dealing with the importance of the frontier century and the regularly occurring dynamics of old families (particularly, New England's) and the new arrivals. We did this cursory table showing the spread of education institutions over the landscape. 
Some U.S. Universities

The look at these institutions is part of a larger theme dealing with the American Dream which will always be of interest. But, establishing the intellectual realm's history will allow us a better position with which to look at the whole of the 400 years. We started with Harvard's history where the influence of Cambridge is considered. Family concerns was a factor; Yale will be on the list to be handled, soon. However, we wanted to stop and look at what's known historically in terms of origins. 

Lots of universities (and, colleges will be included separately if they have not extended their reach) came about in the 1800s. We were looking at Tulane's history today with respect to New England influences. Successful families and their schools dot the landscape. Stanford comes to mind (the time was of Eliot's administration). Many of these schools bear the family name. In any case, we will search out New England connections. 

Which bring us to this post. After Tulane, we looked at William and Mary with interesting associations in the old country which is more prominently seen in the southern realms. So, we will get back to that. Yale came to mind due to the Eaton connection. 

So, what came to mind was listing the 10 earliest institutions as provided by a reputable researcher. Here is the list with start year, name, and location. 
    1636, Harvard, Cambridge MA
    1693, William and Mary, Williamsburg VA
    1696, King Williams School (now, St. John's), Annapolis MD 
    1701, Yale, New Haven CT
    1740, Pennsylvania, Philadelphia PA
    1742, Moravian, Bethlehem PA
    1743, Delaware, Newark DE
    1746, Princeton, Princeton NJ
    1749, Washington and Lee, Lexington VA
    1754, Kings College (Columbia), New York NY
Like the expansion of our scope from New England brought by the need to look at the U.S. in total after its establishment, we will cover lots of subjects. Of importance will be tracking the educational part of the culture that developed from its earliest days. 

Colombia University's time corresponds with the French-Indian affair which set the stage for the revolution. So, we need to look at that next. 

Remarks: Modified: 05/24/2022

05/24/2022 -- Added look at Oldest universities, New Spain



Tuesday, May 17, 2022

John Rogers

TL;DR -- As we continue or pace through the terms in an other-than-linear manner, we next see John Rogers who as born in England, was a graduate of Harvard, married into the Dudley/Bradstreet mix, worked with Rev. Hubbard come into his brief term as Head. Of note will be the Ipswich influence, that is, the Ipswich of Essex County of Massachusetts. 

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Our look at the Heads of Harvard (Wikipedia) has been driven by different factors since we started the work. This one allows us to finish the early Heads with John Rogers (Wikipedia), so that we can start looking at periods. He came as a youngster from England with his parents but attended Harvard. 

Initially, the interests for looking at the Heads were several, but we can start with this list: 

As we complete a first pass through the list, we will tie U.S. generations back to these Heads in terms of general views of the U.S. For instance, D.A.R., in an overview of their mission, stresses the upcoming 250th where the U.S. split from European influence, somewhat. It still had to contend various ways. On the other hand, D.A.R. notes that the whole idea of an American Spirit has lapsed. To us, that has been apparent for some time. 

Does having an old pedigree mean anything? John Rogers married into a family that lived in Ipswich. This Essex County town is of importance to us for several reasons which we will get into. For the Heads, we like to provide WikiTree information: John Rogers; his wife, Elizabeth Denison. Her grandfather was Gov. Thomas Dudley. Too, John had William Hubbard, as in law. 

John Rogers' term which started after that of Urian Oakes was brief. Increase Mather came into the office next. 

Remarks: Modified: 06/28/2022

06/28/2022 -- Updated the typo in the Wikipedia reference. 
 

Thursday, May 12, 2022

New Spain's span

TL;DR -- Our early focus was on New England and its northern neighbor, New France, as we got acquainted with the history of the northeastern part of the U.S. Post the Louisiana deal, the western expansion came to attention which brought New Spain into the focus. What was the situation in that huge western part in the time of the Revolution? Did New Spain get involved? SAR reports on their research into the matter.  

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New Spain came into the discussion last year, as we looked at the movement to the west which started in earnest after the Revolutionary War. A search in this post on New Spain brings in some of the articles on the subject. 

As well, the Wikipedia article on New Spain provides information including a 1561 map of the extent of New Spain which ran across the whole of the country from CA to FL, through AZ, NM and TX. But, by the late 17th century, much of "North America had been claimed by European countries." Texas is interesting due to its access from New England through the interior or by water. The French had been there about the same time as the Massachusetts start having gone down through the Great Lakes to portages on two rivers to the Mississippi and then down. New France was the first colonizer of Texas which was at the southern end of its extent along the waterways from the north. Later, we saw explorers covering the same area by foot and horseback from the north and east. 

Spanish Texas

Coming from the south, New Spain had displaced New France by the time of the U.S. Revolution. This map of the Spanish Missions (1659-1795) shows the extent of its coverage. 

By 1819, the map on the left  (below) shows the lay of the land. This was after the addition of the land of Louisiana. 

Today, we see huge splits in views between regions of the country, such as those between some in the east and those of the southwest. Our review of history with a different perspective based upon changes over time and through technology will become more regular in looking how 'views' emerged and evolved. 

When we get to the time of the Revolution, there had been decades of maneuvering between the colonials of New England, New France and New Spain (and others). The advent of the newer party, America, provided means for old conflicts to work themselves out. Fortunately, we have descendants of the people involved to study (context of D.A.R. and S.A.R. and those of the loyalists' leaning).  

In 2010, a group from SAR went to Spain to celebrate New Spain's help in the efforts at attaining independence. In their report which gives us some details of the history of the interaction between the new start and the old country, we get another map showing a comparison of the extent of the areas related to each of the parties involved. 

Spain in the American Revolution
By Stephen Renouf, Trustee,
SAR Spain Society

Remarks: Modified: 05/24/2022

05/24/2022 -- Added look at Oldest universities, New Spain

Monday, May 2, 2022

Legacies of Harvard

TL;DR -- Recently, President Bacow released a report by a committee that looked at Harvard's involvement with slavery. The report is about the first phase of an on-going project that associates with our interests in Harvard as an archetype, of sorts. 

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Legacies? There are many. This post deals with a recent report which is very much apropos for further discussions about the History of Harvard (our look). But, there are many other legacies to note, many of which will deal with the U.S., in particular, while others are of a more universal flavor. 

Report by 
Harvard Radcliffe Institute
Quote: On April 26, 2022, Harvard President Larry Bacow released the Report of the Committee on Harvard & the Legacy of Slavery

The site's concern is the first phase of a project for which it provides a message by Bacow and identifies the Committee. There is other information available such as the following:

The list includes the "Enslaver," the "Harvard Affiliation(s)," the "Enslaved Persons," the "Documentation Dates," and any "Memorialization(s)." The first line is for "Nathanial Eaton (1609-1674)" who was "Schoolmaster (1637-1639)" and who owned "The Moor". The list has footnotes that have extensive links. 

We will follow the progress of this Initiative, as it is an example of Harvard and the history of the U.S. through time. Also, the timeline, explicitly, includes the first Head who was the first "enslaver." What we see in the table is that the next row is Increase Mather (who was involved from 1686 to 1701). That points to little to none slavery involvement in New England early on. 

That needs to be studied. Casting Eaton as a sole rogue may have been fun, but the research needs to expand due to Harvard's senior, and influential, roles, across the board. 

So, we can say that this gets Eaton listed in a different context. 

Remarks: Modified: 05/02/2022

05/02/2022 --  On the names, we can look at absences as well as presences. There was a run of Heads that can be looked at. The only 'Gardiner' was in the Perkins family. Other than that, 'Gardner' does not appear. Nice bit of research that has been sorely needed for a while. Appreciate the focus on the American Indian experience. Now, how about the Quakers? 

Saturday, April 30, 2022

Daughters of the American Revolution (D.A.R.)

TL;DR -- We have been touting the series of celebrations that arise through time where we are at an unique state of such. That is, the U.S. start is coming up on 250 years. Then, we have the ongoing 400th anniversaries being recognized. The 300th is too raw, as of yet, but we'll get there. Then, we have the 200th of the Jefferson deal, followed by the 100th of those who were less than a handful of generations back. For each, we can have a focus. This post is about the 250th celebrations. 

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Our look at the U.S. is from the viewpoint of 400 years of family history, where family encompasses literally 1000s of families. Some of these are involved with Harvard, which, thankfully, has been there from the beginning. 

Then, there is the 250th coming up that celebrates the split with the old King's realm. This is where D.A.R. comes in. As does, too, we might add, the view of S.A.R. (Sons). Then, there is C.A.R. (Children). These organizations are merely 125 years old, at most which means that they were not brought to be until 125  years after the start of the Revolution. 

Now, we have had several posts on these groups (search on DAR; we also use D.A.R.). One important one looks at several early loci with respect to Patriots, say Cape Ann to Patriot. This would be a subset of DAR's membership, since many Patriots were recent arrivals in the early to mid 1700s. 

We, at the TGS, Inc., like to add in that we are interested in Loyalists, as well. And, we need to keep a broader focus with concerns about New Spain, New France, and other attempts. 

Now, back to DAR. We were motivated to do this post due to a query about DAR being right-winged which seems to have gotten a lot of press. Gosh, it's non-political for the most part, as an organization. That is, one might say that it's of both wings. There will be members of various persuasions, however they get along as we would expect of a collection of mature Americans. Now, given the question, a quick search brought up several articles and books. 

This is a brief list meant to be illustrative of the discussion. The coverage by time is deliberate.

  • Case for and against DAR (1953) ... we start with what might be called a look at the "old" DAR. 
  • DAR-lings of NY (2003) ... some notion of the current state of multiversity. DAR has extended the definition of what is a Patriot. Rather than just boom-boom people, many types of support are recognized including the old folks who kept the administrative things going in the time of the turmoil (see note about Loyalists below). 
  • Who's a DAR? Answer grows more diverse. (2021) ... even more modern view.  
Before going on, look at this view of the same family with a Patriot and Loyalist mentioned. The former? One of the founders of the Society of Cincinnati. The latter? A decorated general of the earlier conflict, namely the French-Indian affair where the Crown trained the American officer corps (see Regimental History Series) very well, indeed. In this case, the former worked with Washington. The latter lived in peace unlike the reality of many loyalists who were abused. 

Now, the gist: DAR at Encyclopedia[dot]com. This quote got our attention. 
  • The constitution of the DAR mentioned three main objectives of the society: (1) to perpetuate the memory and spirit of the men and women who achieved American Independence; (2) to promote institutions of learning so that the young and old can develop the largest capacity for performing the duties of American Citizens; and (3) to cherish, maintain, and extend the institutions of American freedom and to foster true patriotism and love of country.
We'll leave it at that, for now. As, there are plenty of references to Winthrop's "city on a hill" concept, by allusion for the most part. Too, that the beacon (we chose Gardner's Beacon as the label for our newsletter) beckons and that many follow the call, pertains to much more than the dream of coming to the U.S. and exploiting the situation to screw people for the purposes of richness, fame, power, or what have you. 

You know, one approach to obtaining citizenship is to serve in the military. The reality is that only about 7% of the population does that. In WWII, Harvard had a huge percentage of its students enlist. At the same time, Hollywood actually tried to be part of the action (rather than the fantasy).  

Yes, Harvard (our History of Harvard) seems to have divorced itself from the country of its beginnings, but they do have a responsibility which accrued to the early start. That is something to put on the table for discussion. 

Remarks: Modified: 04/30/2022

04/30/2022 --

Friday, April 29, 2022

Edward Everett

TL;DR -- As we pursue the list of Heads, the sampling has been informal. Today, we pick by family name and look at Edward Everett who had quite a career outside of Harvard. He disliked the 'rowdy' students, one report said. But, he helped get an applied focus in place, namely science and engineering. Harvard over the 400 years of the U.S.? Significant in many ways. 

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Our look at the Heads of Harvard (Wikipedia) has been quite cursory so far. This one was interesting due to Edward Everett (Wikipedia) being about half-way from the start to now. Just a quick review brought up several topics to pursue. For instance, he has a solid New England pedigree; his wife has one that is even more complete. So, we will venture further in that domain than we have before, at some point. This post is a mere summary. 

Initially, the interests for looking at the Heads were several, but we can start with this list: 

After completing a first pass through the list, we will tie U.S. generations back to these Heads in terms of general views of the U.S. For instance, D.A.R., in an overview of their mission, stresses the upcoming 250th where the U.S. split from European influence, somewhat. It still had to contend various ways. On the other hand, D.A.R. notes that the whole idea of an American Spirit has lapsed. To us, that has been apparent for some time. Does having an old pedigree mean anything?

Okay, Harvard? Early on, it might have argued about a universal view where country was mere borders established somewhat arbitrarily. That universal view would have been heavily Christian. Later, a more technical spirit emerged. That encouraged the elite view that was there from the beginning to take strong hold. Hence, Harvard is of the world's upper crusts, somewhat. 
 
Edward Everett
Aside, we'll go back to Rev. John Wise to found a proper discussion, at some point. A pamphlet of his was reprinted by Patriots over 250 years ago. What does this have to do with Everett? He would have been a progeny of those of that time. Too, he lived in the era of the Civil War. 

For some Heads, WikiTree had little information which is usually the case where there are no children involved. That is not the case, now: Edward Hill Everett (Everett-650); Charlotte Gray Brooks (Brooks-2069). However, the WikiTree Profile of Brooks has no regular interest. When we talk New England, the basis, for us, is Cape Ann, or, one might say, Essex County. Brooks has many threads from that little locus. 

But, Harvard is more than involvement with the trivia of everyday life. Oh? We will discuss that notion, too, as the changes seen on the horizon now indicate that some lessons to be learned were not, both here and elsewhere. So, Harvard dropped the ball? 

One commenter expressed that Everett grew dissatisfied with the Head role fairly quickly (one alleged factor? rowdy students). His time in the office was close to three years. One achievement was getting the Lawrence gift applied. 

Remarks: Modified: 04/30/2022

04/30/2022 -- For starters, we can take a brief look at the Daughters of the American Revolution. There are three looks at different times, 1953, 2003, and 2021. Plus, the Encyclopedia's coverage considers some of the history plus the mission. D.A.R. has evolved like the rest of us. 

Sunday, April 24, 2022

Cambridge

TL;DR -- We have been looking at the History of Harvard as a way to study the history of the U.S. Several times, we have mentioned older universities. This is the first post dealing with the subject where we note that both Oxford and Cambridge have had ties from the beginning, back to Rev. John White and before. 

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One of our research thrusts has been to parallel Harvard's experiences via looking at the Heads (with Benjamin Wadsworth and Urian Oakes as our latest entries) over the centuries with that of the U.S., its colonial beginning, and post Civil War accomplishments. But, we realize that we have to consider the old country in our analysis, so we will start to look at the Universities (Oxford, Cambridge) with respect to U.S. history. 

Universitas Cantabrigiensis

For instance, "Cambridge is the UK’s leading university for graduate studies in American History" and offers regular seminars to the public on the subject. On the other hand, Oxford claims "particularly strong connections" to the U.S. We have mentioned comparing events at Harvard over the years with its peers in the old world without being specific. Now, we are looking to use both. 

For instance, Rev. John White's education is of Oxford. On looking at his extended family, there are many from Cambridge, including Ann's ancestors. John Harvard was a Cambridge man; Harvard was modeled on Cambridge. 

The alumni list of both schools include many of the U.S., including modern day scholars. Of interest is, that of the first class of Harvard (1642), the majority went back to England. One of these was George Downing the namesake of Downing Street. They went back to an England in turmoil. Nathaniel Brewster studied further at Trinity College, Dublin and served under Henry Cromwell, son of Oliver. 

As well as current-event issues, technology will be a focus. One of our tasks is to follow technology over the four centuries as it evolved here and over there with quite a bit of disparity until after the Revolution. Too, we will look at classes and trace the influence of graduates. 

Reminder: Count Rumford about whom we will have further discussion. 

In the arts, we can point to Ezra Pound who was at all three places. In academia, the first Head of Harvard, Henry Dunster, studied at Cambridge. Stepping back to a subject still pending some attention, the prior Harvard Head, Nathaniel Eaton, was a Cambridge graduate who later earned MD and PhD degrees from the University of Padua. Those are samples from the modern era and from the beginning with lots of time in-between to fill in. 

Remarks: Modified: 04/24/2022

04/24/2022 -- 

Friday, April 22, 2022

William S. Barstow

TL;DR -- As we look at how New England grew up and expanded, our focus will always contain families as well as the more abstract notions that are always involved after being conjured up by the brains. That is an universal dynamic. A look at one family and a town with their name brought up some "notables who lived there" lists that led to specific companies and activities. Of course, associations over the years accumulate to an almost endless potential for research. Filters, such as relevance, then kick in. But, for lessons to learn, an "a priori" position is almost never sufficient. 

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For now, we'll just have some pointers to material that will support further research. Essentially, while looking at the upcoming 250th, with respect to origins (say, the Society of Cincinnati), we got back to New Hampshire. So, we can tie Patriots back to Cape Ann and other sites. Per usual, families are key in their many relationships over the decades and centuries. 

One of the Founders of the Society was a Gilman which is an early family, but later than Cape Ann. However, they are mixed in everywhere. For focus, we can start with Gilmanton which is a NH burg west of Exeter (btw, the researcher is a westerner used to wide-open skies (east is east, and west is west), so directions with respect to the geographic features of New England are to be considered fuzzy). Let's use two books:

The History of Gilmanton - from 1845, this can be read for free at Google. The opening index reads like a who-is-who. Pg 20 has a list of the Proprietors with a little bit of information about each. Some families, such as Cogswell (pg 258 on), Dudley and Eastman, give a little history of their colonial experience. 

Genealogy of the Greely-Greeley Family - from 1905, gives lots of detail in 911 pages. Access to this got us information about General A. W. Greeley whose crew was left in the Artic. He was a descendant of Sarah (Gardner) Balch. The team that later rescued what was left of his crew had one ship captained by a Coffin who Richard Gardner and Sarah Shattuck. This book has more information about how Gilmanton families relate. Again, freely readable. 

Now, taking this further, we mentioned Eastman who founded Eastman Kodak, now known as Kodak. As well, there was an Eastman Chemical company. Eastman's New York connections will be of interest, as well as those in other places in the U.S. and the world. 

For instance, following links are about a company founded by New Englanders who went south to New York. On looking further, there was Essex County involvement, as well. 

Three Mile Island
plant fact sheet
 
Gilbert was an engineering company that got caught up in the Three Mile Island incident but not in a direct fashion with their product. They were a consulting architect. So, this type of situation is worth looking at further, especially since there is a New England association. 

Too, we learn from history; bringing in family information is a new aspect; how all of the types of research that used digital sources pan out is an open issue and will be for a long while. 

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After Gilbert Associates failed, many employees started new companies using the name. However, this link from a report by Oak Ridge indicates the work of the former company: Feasibility of an unattended nuclear power plant. The image is from a Fact Sheet that mentions Gilbert Associates with respect to Three Mile Island.  

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A few more links give a brief overview of the transitions of the Company. The technology connection is interesting along with the New England originators of some involved parties. However, these links are to show the inception of the last name. 

  • 1934 (NYTimes) - Barstow changes name to E. M. Gilbert Engineering Corporation. This was the manager who came in after Barstow. 
  • 1936 (Department of Labor lawsuit) - Shows both names.  
  • 1942 (Federal Register, NYTimes) - Now Gilbert Associates; notice of lawsuit (July); then, action dropped(August) due to actions by parties concerned. 

Example of several things related to technology, complexity, information and more. Views of history and family interleave. 

Remarks: Modified: 04/23/2022

04/22/2022 -- On two of the links, the paper might have seen our query as resurrecting a page that was to go stale. Or, on closer look, there may be a subscriber step involved.  So, added a reference from Oak Ridge National Laboratory with references to Gilbert Associates as well as pointed to a Fact Sheet about the facility. 

04/23/2022 -- Added notes about the Company's transitions. Next, we'll look for some specifics of the New England ties as well as notice of the GA designs for components for nuclear plants. It would be interesting to see all of the offshoots from this one business.