Monday, December 30, 2019

Posts 2018, 2017, 2016

Post lists: 2018,17,16 ;   2015,14,13 ;   2012,11,10 

This is the third image of this type. Note, the order is descending with the year then the months and the posts. That is, it's a push-down list where we go from now backward in time. That allows us to see how we got to where we are in terms of what these posts cover. Most posts relate to research.

Remarks: Modified: 12/31/2019

12/31/2019 --

Posts 2015, 2014, 2013

Post lists: 2018,17,16 ;   2015,14,13 ;   2012,11,10

This is the second image of this type. Note, the order is descending with the year then the months and the posts. That is, it's a push-down list where we go from now backward in time. That allows us to see how we got to where we are in terms of what these posts cover. Most posts relate to research.

Remarks: Modified: 12/31/2019

12/31/2019 --

Posts 2012, 2011, 2010

Post lists: 2018,17,16 ;   2015,14,13 ;   2012,11,10

We were browsing through the tens years of posts and saw this one: Backbone and more (from Dec. of 2011). We referred to this elsewhere at the time and later. We'll recover that thinking. Later, here is another of the same theme: Written out of history (from Aug. of 2012). That latter one was in response to reading material where Thomas was not mentioned.

Actually, there is a post on this, we have to be thankful to Rev. Hubbard for talking to and including Thomas in his review of early Massachusetts. He wrote in the 1680s. The manuscript didn't the light of day until the mid-part of the 1800s. Hence, the motive, in part.

Lots of these types of themes have recurred over the past ten years. Lots of the posts were about things discovered or uncovered. And, as we mention in the coming issue of Gardner's Beacon, we'll be relooking this year. After all, when does a decade end/begin? We really do not have a zeroth year. Or, did not prior to abstraction-philes of mathematics brought it to bear.

The image is of the titles of posts for the first three years. We'll do the subsequent years, shortly.

Note: The order is descending (2012,11,10), with year then months and posts within months. So, it's like a push-down stack. One reason for doing this is that the order is chronological from now backward. That is nice from the perspective of considering progression.

The light colored lines are those read of late. One thing is that July 2012 is missing. Need to see what was going on during that month that kept TGS work to a minimum. We will report on this.  

We will also update this chart: The metrical. How do we all like the modern way, the means of which is due to computation, of putting an endless supply of numbers on ourselves?

Oh yes, there is a Backbone category (needs to be updated). Backbone? Where the rubber meets the road. In other words, reality versus the brain-laden misdirection that has been so much of an issue over the eons.

Here, two methods are used, the page (for structure) and category (accumulation of a sort). There are more which we want to explore, describe, and demonstrate. Thomas and Margaret, and the American Dream, are the motive; life and times are the focus for ways and means.

Remarks: Modified: 12/31/2019

12/31/2019 -- Made the years to be descending. Reads better.

Sunday, December 29, 2019

Summary, 2019

We have done some type of summary since 2011. We missed 2017, for some reason. Until last year, these were in a similar format. This year, it's different (mobility's influence).

Last 3 months                                All time                            
Another difference is that we are using 'Last 3 months' rather than last 30 days. The new mode has more options than there were before. It is interesting to see that the "Marriage of Thomas and Margaret" post is still on top. Last year, it was also on top for both the past month and for all time.

We will put links for all of these, soon. Also, when we look at Summary, 2014, we see a more thorough review. We'll have to get back to that sort of thing. Expect it here, later.

Recaps: 2019, 2018, 2017 (missing), 201620152014201320122011.

Remarks: Modified: 12/29/2019

12/29/2019 --

Saturday, December 28, 2019

Gardner's Beacon, Vol IX, No 3

This issue of Gardner's Beacon looks at our decade of work and recaps a few important items overall as well addresses activities within the last year. We find our plate full of accomplishments yet the todos are a large set, too.

On a review of Dr. Frank's books, we see that the 1907 book looked at some descendants of all of the children, however most were of Samuel's line. The 1933 book followed George. We need to fill in five generations, at least, for the remainder of the children, as well as, adding more lines from Samuel and George. We have started to use WikiTree for this purpose.

GB IX, 3

The fifth volume of The Gardner Annals is in preparation. We expect to have two issues of this volume. Then, we can take the entirety of the material and re-frame for a book that is suitable for libraries. We are looking for articles.


See Vol. IX, No. 3 of Gardner's Beacon for ... Sources.

Remarks: Modified: 01/02/2019

12/28/2019 --

Decade start

So, we have four days left in 2019, including today (12/28/2019). After Christmas, periodicals start to review the past year. Like the USA Today reviewing all of those lost during 2019. It's interesting. The article published in the 12/22 edition but was updated. Don Imus is included now. He was 79. Why mention him? He was a Marine (U.S.).

When a '9' year rolls around, then the decade can be reviewed. For instance, the movies of the 2010s. That then gets pushed further (our love of abstraction and its levels) to things like the best of all of the Star Wars movies (11 releases - starting in 1977 - remember where  you were? Elvis died that year - we have not seen any of these - in the theaters, perhaps, on the telly).

Our last post said that we are going to be reviewing our work over the past decade (Elizabeth (Gardner) Dabney Bridges Stevens), but no timeline was given. It will be an on-going thing. In this case, 'Elizabeth' was picked due to a recent article (NEHGS - American Ancestors) got us looking at our records. Too, it got us looking further at WikiTree where we're supporting the documentation of descendant of Thomas Gardner (and looking at origins, to boot). All of this type of non-profit work needs regular attention and energy applied.

But, let's step back. Was the first year zero? No. That whole concept came later after lots of thinking and discussion. In a technology sense, we'll get back to that (one of our goals will be supporting research - via technology as well as with other means - lots to report, over time - the theme with this little discussion). So, being more humanistic-ally oriented, we are suggesting that we don't have four days to get things done before the new year. In fact, 2021 will be the start of the decade. We'll have some things done by the 1st (we hope). The reviews of the decade will go through mid-year, at which point, we'll transition to what's next over the next decade. Then, next year, at this time, perhaps, we'll have a better framework from which to launch to the future.

Now, let's back up another way. From the beginning, we heard of Bosworth. There was a Wikipedia page that was later removed. Our first post on this was Historical genealogy. This will be a theme going forward. Other posts were: Richard III and Gardner (Richardson points to this topic in his books), King Slayer Court (tone of all things Gardner, supporting the work of David T. Gardner), and a few more.

On of these looked at the discovery of a body that is believed to be that of Richard III (A new science?). With DNA, we are taking a technical focus so as to remove that which leads to hype. Want to know a parallel? AI (which will come into our focus, too). Hence, our first post was a summary: DNA and genealogy.

So, it was interesting to run across John Ashdown-Hill's review of the Richard III study. It is dated 22 May 2017, so is recent. He was encouraged by historian, Philippa Langley, who asked him to lay out his arguments for where to look and why (Clare Priory). There is more information in the Wikipedia article. A subordinate page looks at the discussion of who of Henry Tudor's men was responsible for the fatal blow.

This example is one of many themes that relate to the history and genealogy of Thomas Gardner and his wife, Margaret Fryer. Technology has allowed a huge change in mode from the time of Dr. Gardner (1907 chart) a 110 years ago. It's anyone's guess about 100 years from now. However, just like we can refer to, and respect, his work, the current work can be of the same quality.

Too, we can change to other modes, such a historic fiction. We'll publish part of a novella, situated in Ipswich, MA in the next issue of The Gardner Annals.

Remarks: Modified: 01/05/2020

01/05/2020 -- We have reviews on a continual basis. One of the first post of last year was this one: Tenth year.

Friday, December 27, 2019

Elizabeth (Gardner) Dabney Bridges Stevens

As mentioned in the post on Elizabeth (Gardner) Gardner, we have started to review our decade worth of accumulation. One focus of research has been to fill in Dr. Frank's tree more than he did in his 1907 book. In 2018, we made progress with this mother's heritage. Another has been oriented toward collateral families, including those who moved outside of New England. That gets us to looking at the western expansion among other things. Another theme was 'All things Gardner' as we have heard from many of the Gardner families that Dr. Frank mentioned. Then, there was an interest in what came before: origins and more (FAQ provides a summary and links to further material). And, that encompasses the fuller view of England (and Europe).

How we proceed is an open issue. We will be scholarly and fund research for others (see our Portal (to truth) and the support button). We expect a lot more posts. We have experimented with different blogging methods as well as produced the Gardner's Beacon and The Gardner Annals (GB Vol IX, No 3 and TGA Vol V, No 2 undergoing construction - still time to contribute).

Organizing will be a continuing task. Presentation will continue to be on the www as well as by print. After we finish five volumes of The Gardner Annals, we intend to prepare a printed version beyond our current volumes. This will consolidate information to be more suitable for future research.

WikiTree has been really helpful, for several reasons. However, as with any of these tools, what one gets dependents upon the care and quality of the work. The New England Historic Genealogical Society (NEHGS) has been using WikiTree to document descendants of those who were part of the Great Migration. As well, they have a focus on Gateway Ancestors. In this case, there is an effort to build proven threads back to the Magna Carta Sureties. Lots of work to be done. Technology can be a great assist. Effort is a major factor.

Dr. Frank's work was phenomenal. We have mentioned that. Too, we are using his work as the basis for what we do. Other works, such as the NEHGS provides, are complementary. We will correct (extend and amend) Dr. Frank's material. And, we'll be using our 'Portal to truth' (which has a basis not unlike other things of theoretical interest).

Which gets us to Elizabeth (Gardner) Dabney Bridges Stevens. After we looked at Elizabeth (Gardner) Blanchard (post describes the motivation), we found a few more Elizabeth Gardners. There are other names, but this one search allowed us to look more closely at the 1907 and 1933 books (we'll have a new table of comparison drawn up). EGDBS was found on page 178 of the 1907 book (see image). She was 1-#159. The entry was short. One line said that Elizabeth married Ebenezer Stevens. Per usual, we go to look via search (a technique that has been honed). One thing we found was a reference to a portrait of her (Item #2043).

1907 book, showing
correction by Dr. Frank
Well, that suggested that she might very well be in the 1933 book. She is 2-#56 in the later work. There was more text describing her marriages. On further looking, though, Dr. Frank had included some of the new material in 'Additions and Corrections' section. In the image, the left side is a copy of the page from the 1907 edition; on the right is the correction from the same edition.

Her first husband, Nathaniel Dabney, was a loyalist. We have a couple of posts on that subject, for instance, Henry Gardner. But, there were other loyalists who have ties to the Gardner families or are of interest to our work.

Right now, we just want to emphasis the thoroughness of Dr. Frank. In the 1933 edition, he expands information about the other two husbands, including their parents.

We will be looking at this topic further after we find more information about Elizabeth.

Remarks: Modified: 12/27/2019 

12/27/2019 --

Wednesday, December 25, 2019

Elizabeth (Gardner) Gardner

We have another Elizabeth (probably, several more) to look at. We just did a post on Elizabeth Gardner (1-#197, 2-# -58 - married Blanchard). Also, we had an earlier reference to Elizabeth Gardner (2-#147 - married Amory) who is noted by Dr. Frank as being the originator of the 1st Governor argument. We had intended to follow up on all of the descendants that we have encountered during the past decade's research. Of late, given the Clapp story (and there is reference to this family in the 1933 book) story in the recent NEHGS publication, we wanted to get back to our original focus on collateral families which brings the mothers into focus. Also, we can see a more full picture of how all of these people relate to each other.

Speaking of Dr. Frank's book, we are using the copy found at Hathi Trust. That is, that will be the source for the numbers. We did a comparison between the 1907 and 1933 (overview) editions one night. Doing this review brings out how the 1907 book is mostly about the Samuel line that Dr. Frank was more familiar with (he had done the research).

Note: As we go forward, we will need to update the table to show changes between 1907 and 1933. As well, when this was done, I was a newbie with both books at a desk and just typed in numbers as I saw them. In columns. I see, now, that the numbers changed per book for persons in each. BTW, after ten years of research running down many paths, it's time to consolidate all of this. Of course, The Gardner Annals is our planned vehicle for delivery of the material.

Note: We'll use '1' for the 1907 book and '2' for the 1933.

The Elizabeth of this post (1-#89, 2-26) is a descendant of George (John, Samuel, George, Thomas). She married Jonathan (1-#73) who was a descendant of Samuel (Abel, Samuel, Thomas). She was fifth generation; her husband was fourth generation. They were born only six years apart.

Her children were Jonathan, Elizabeth, Samuel (died young as did three other children), Sarah, John, Mary, Lydia, Samuel, Hannah, Margaret, Benjamin (died young).

It was her son, Jonathan (1-#105), who was eulogized by Dr. Bentley. Her son, Jonathan, and his wife, Sarah Putnam, are buried in the Charter Street Cemetery, in the Gardner annex that we will be looking at further.

Note: We are attaching a 'Research' tag to this post which will be used to flag additional work.

Remarks: Modified: 07/01/2023

12/26/2019 -- We have started a WikiTree for Jonathan (Gardner-14318). We will continue with Elizabeth's Profile as we get material together. These threads a great for working out these types of  relationships which can be involved.

12/27/2019 - Some changes due to an edit review.

10/16/2020 -- Her great-grandson, Richard Crowninshield Derby (Descendants of Samuel, How to handle the frontiers), was killed at the Battle of Antietam, MD. 

07/01/2023 -- Elizabeth is featured in this post: 247th of U.S. At least, two sons were Patriots. 

Saturday, December 21, 2019

Elizabeth (Gardner) Blanchard

We got to this lady by a circuitous trek. The latest issue the American Ancestors Magazine (Vol 20, Num 3) had an article titled thus, In Her Own Words: "The Life of Elizabeth (Clapp) Withington (1816-1845)." She was a granddaughter of Lemuel Clapp of Dorchester about whom we know a bunch. Elizabeth's diary was found and was the basis for the article. The tales were a repeat of what happened 100 years before which we will look at more closely. The main theme of the issue was women's voices which have been lost. We might say the same for the silence of Thomas and Margaret.

Now, the Elizabeth of the title of the post is not this Elizabeth.

So, continuing, Elizabeth's father, Lemuel, was an early patriot whose military career has been the subject of several papers. So, the thought was, did Dr. Frank mention him in the series on the Siege of Boston? These appeared in issues of The Massachusetts Magazine. We found no reference to Lemuel, himself, though several from the Clapp family were mentioned. It may be that Lemuel's organization was outside of the focus area (his group helped fortify Dorchester Heights).

The next step was to see if Dr. Frank had mentioned Clapp in his 1907 book. Also, we looked for Withington as this was the family into which Elizabeth married. Well, not that either, but Winthrop is there. Of course, John is mentioned with regard to the early years of Salem and its surrounds. However, another Winthrop name, that is familiar, shows up.

Before we look at that, this reading of this history today got us to Israel Porter. Now that name rings a bell since Dr. Frank has it in his lineage (Houses of Salem). Too, there are Gardner/Putnam going-ons from way back. What was new was a Journal with an article about the reputation of General Israel. This bears our attention. Israel had been a farmer. So, he wasn't of the clan (military officers). Some of the opinions will tie into that theme. Lafayette weighed in to. Well, Americans are celebrating that old guy (we'll put a link here, French student's work on following the General - Note: 07/29/2020 - here it is - The Lafayette Trail). Yet, we allow merit to be a factor in the rise of an individual. The American dream? Some think so (it'll be a part of the conversation, too).

In our ten years, we have covered a lot of area. Most of this was looking back, however, along the way, new stuff was being created. So, we are a point where we can use our work as a backbone and fill in the new material. In short, again, no lack of work to be done.

Well, back to Dr. Frank's book. Where R.C. Winthrop was mentioned was in the section for Elizabeth Gardner (1-#197 - 1907 book). Okay, we have seen that name before. Our first step was to look at WikiTree. What? There is very little information there. We could see how she descends from Thomas on one side, but there is also a descent on the other to bring out. That WikiTree information needs to be updated.

What about find a grave? Sure enough, Elizabeth Blanchard (1759-1816) is there. She was born early enough to remember the War of Revolution. Too, F.A.G. has a record for her son who married Mary Anne (Cabot) Lee. Their daughter, Elizabeth (she of the post), married Robert Charles Winthrop (1834-1905). He is a forebear of John Kerry through a granddaughter. Also, he funded Winthrop University in 1886 to teach young women. It is considered South Carolina's top university.

There is a lot more to look at, but Elizabeth's father, Samuel Blanchard, was a physician who studied with General David Cobb. We do have a Wikitree entry for him (Cobb-1762), as there is an effort to on WikiTree to identify people who had served during the War of Revolution.


If we might proceed on Elizabeth (Gardner) Blanchard's line further back toward Thomas and Margaret on the father's side (John 1-#139), we see that her grandfather was Samuel Pickering Gardner. His grandparents were John and Elizabeth (Putnam) Gardner, and his son was John Lowell Gardner. We want to look at further at his sister (see Remarks 12/25/2019).


Elizabeth Blanchard is a grand-niece of a descendant of Samuel (Jonathan who married Elizabeth (Gardner) Gardner),  as well, as being descendant of George (through her father). Looking at all of these associations, Samuel Gardner (son of Thomas) owned Gardner Hill. It was Samuel Pickering Gardner (descendant of George) who visited in the 1830s and was upset with the destruction of grave sites.

Now, looking at Putnam (mentioned above), Elizabeth (Gardner) Gardner's grandmother (Elizabeth Putnam) was a cousin of General Putnam. But, her grandmother was sister-in-law, too, as she married the General's brother (her first marriage).


In eight days, we can acknowledge, once again, 29 Dec. 1674.

Remarks: Modified: 07/29/2020 

12/25/2019 -- Closer look at the sister of Samuel Pickering Gardner: Elizabeth (Gardner) Gardner (WikiTree - husband Jonathan). Also, we have a WikiTree profile for Elizabeth (Gardner) Blanchard.

12/26/2019 -- One of the ways that Clapps comes into the Gardner tree is with the 1704 marriage of John Gardner and Elizabeth Weld. Elizabeth's grandmother was Barbara Clapp.

12/27/2019 -- Some changes after an edit review (not the final). Put in the new reference for people and the book (1907 will be 1-#number which is the Dr. Frank assigned number; 1933 will be 2-#number). Clarified the relationship between EGGardner and EGBlanchard.

07/29/2020 -- Added link to the work on Lafayette's Trail. Also, Elizabeth is of the sixth generation.

Thursday, December 12, 2019

Houses of Salem

Houses of Salem? There are many. Some have put these into periods. We'll start with what's called 'Period One' and venture around a little. We'll be at this, for a while, so stay tuned.

What precipitated this little journey was an article posted on the Stanford University site. It was titled: The Salem Houses of William "Old Billy" Gray. The author was a descendant who missed a chance to see one of the houses of his ancestors while he was in the area as a student back in the '60s.

And, the principal focus of the article was the area of Essex Street in Salem, near where the PEM is now. Having been following Sidney Perley's work the past couple of years, we have to compare notes with the information that the Stanford author used. Sidney roamed the archives, walked about the area, drew up maps, and left very good records for us to study.

But, first, how did we get to Old Billy? Well, looking a Loyalists was the key. After we looked at Abigail Gardiner, we went looking for other Gardner Loyalists. Abigail had been painted by Copley. Well, we found a good example of Loyalists: Henry and Weld Gardner. Old Billy had dealt with this family. The Grays were in several of the  towns in the area (William Gray of Salem and Samuel Gray of Medford) and were of note (Our First Men). Billy was quite successful as a ship owner and lost business due to the Revolution (see Gardner-Pingree house as an example - this was the following conflict - War of 1812).

The Old Billy article had a map from 1780. Sidney drew one up from records for the time period of 1700. We provide a snap of those maps below. The great thing about Sidney's look is that he tells us what the records say about each of the lots.

Now, this look is cursory as we will be digging deeper. Just as we mentioned that the Gray family was spread around, so too was Downing. Turns out that Emmanuel sold land to John Porter. It's in Danvers and known as the Porter-Bradstreet homestead. This Bradstreet is of a later time (Revolution), so this all pulls together.

John Porter is an ancestor of Dr. Frank. John had two daughters marry sons of William Hathorne. A granddaughter of William married a grandson of Thomas and Margaret. Sarah (Porter) Gardner and her husband were buried near Thomas in the Gardner Burial plot. Harmony Grove has their stone, but it's unclear what happened to the bodies. That was work being done late last year and earlier this year.

As said, we'll dive into this more. This area of little Essex County is just full of stories waiting to be told. Such as? A lonely grave in the west having a remains of a descendant of John and William (as in, Porter and Hathorne, respectively). That is, a cousin of Dr. Frank (and Ann). Too, though, he's a descendant of Alden and has a granddaughter who married someone from the Brewster line (one of his daughters is already in the database of members of MF).

However, seems that those (or some types of) western-moving people get dissed. I'm sorry, but we are facing a situation that needs attention (yes you, Mayflower people and NEHGS). As if, someone has to pay $1000 or so for a genealogist. We did this work (and a whole bunch more) pro-bono.

Let's get intellectual, too: Genealogy and Bayes. This is one of many examples.

As said, everywhere we look, there is something to dive into. So, we have no lack of work to do.

Remarks: Modified: 12/25/2019 

12/25/2019 -- Found out about the Lost New England blog, today (Gardner-Pingree House).

Monday, December 9, 2019

All things Gardner

We haven't had a post on this theme that pulls thing together. So, this is it. We have used 'all things Gardner' since 2016. For now, let's just have a list of posts that refer to the concept which we will use as source for a review.
  • Gardners and Gardners (Sep 2010) - Early on, we had queries about Gardner. In some cases, we helped people identify their families. In lots of cases, we pointed people to the most likely place to look for information. Say, tracking all of the Gardner references in the Mormon records. That is, those who did the trek by foot, say. Some took the loafing way around by boat, except one had to go through Central America, by one method. And, once to the west coast, there was the journey to Utah. Lots of other examples. 
  • Historical genealogy (Nov 2010) - First look at some early stuff. Turns out that Richardson has looked at this, too. 
  • Places (Nov 2014) - First place was Gardiner, Oregon. After that, several more. An open bit of research is to get several viewpoints documented. Then, we can see which might be more true than not. Interesting conundrum? 
  • DNA and genealogy (May 2016) - We have had queries about DNA for a long time (we'll get the first of those references). Having a technology focus, we have been slowly diving in. Heavy in? Not really, until a bunch of questions are answered. Questions? Yes, we'll have those. In time. 
  • Bosworth and more (May 2016) - This has the theme related to things in the old countries. Early on, we ran into stories. They are still being considered. 
  • Gardiners Island (Jul 2016) - We have looked at places with the name. As well, we have looked at people with the name. A recent post? Gardner River
  • Continuing work (Sep 2016) - MHGardner, as an example. We need to link in some recent material related to a house that he owned (had built - 1800s) that is being remodeled. 
  • Privileged or not (Nov 2016) - Loyalists. We've barely scratched the surface here. 
  • U.S. and us (Feb 2017) - We have several open research projects going. Our focus deals with the collateral issue, not just Gardner (and variations on that theme). One basic piece of the territory is Cape Ann and all matters related to that effort. BTW, we mention some of the names that are being studied. 
  • Summaries (Nov 2018) - Like we're doing here. 
  • ... we will have more ... 

... more edits on the way ...

We got news that a book on Gardners has been printed. It is Vol. 1; there will be two more.
  • GARDNER Vol. I: Commandos and War Heroes details the history of the surname and contains 45 biographies on warriors, mercenaries, knights, commandos and war heroes with the last name, ranging from generals to fighter pilots to Navy SEALs with the last name Gardner. 
See: Amazon for more details. Looking for a review.

Remarks: Modified: 12/09/2019 

12/09/2019 --

Monday, December 2, 2019

Gardner River

This river flows into the Yellowstone River near Gardiner, MT. As such, these waters flow into the Missouri River and then the Mississippi. Yes, that is a long waterway. Lewis & Clark went back up the other way. Post that, more people went west. One of them was Johnson Gardner for whom the River and the area were named.

Gardiner, MT 
Gardner River: Starts in Yellowstone Park, at 10K feet, flows 25 miles, but has a 202 sq mile basin.

Johnson Gardner was a cohort of Jedediah Strong Smith, Hugh Glass (read about The Revenant which names some of the characters), John S. Gardner (killed in 1823 when Hugh Glass was wounded - letter from Gen. Ashley) and others. We are researching families related to these folks.

We started by looking for places with Gardner in the name (and will look at other associations): Gardner, KS, Gardner, CO, Gardiners Island, Gardiner, OR, and others. We'll pull these together some time. The idea is that we might be seeing the 400th recognized; however, the 200th covers a whole lot more territory in more ways that one.

On looking further at Johnson Gardner, we find out that he is out of Virginia. We will be looking further at that.  But, we want to consider the New England influence as we see via all of those names that come out of the area (starting with Cape Ann) and are found in the huge western expanse.

Here's a quick example which will be written further in its own post. Not far from where Gardner River starts, there is a change due to the Continental Divide. And, we find Conant Creek (Wyoming - known as Berry Creek) that flows into the Snake River (History of the Teton area). There's another Conant Creek in Idaho that flows into the Boise River that flow into the Snake River.

This water goes to the Pacific. The namesake of one of the Creeks arrived in the area in the latter part of the 1800s. We will look further at the family history.

Roger Conant is a gpp of Dr. Frank.

Further reading: Human influences on the Northern Yellowstone Range, ...

Remarks: Modified: 06/20/2022

02/15/2021 -- We are looking further at rivers as means of transportations as well as being barriers starting with the Mississippi River system. Shortly, we will update this with regard to how the Gardner relates to the other two flows from this area that do not go to the Yellowstone River. 

02/16/2021 -- There was another Gardner in the area who was with the Gen. Ashley group. We will look at all in that party. The Rocky Mountain Fur Company had been founded by Ashley. It employed Jedediah Strong Smith. We will look at the North American fur trade, in general. 

06/20/2022 -- Recent flooding due to snow melt and heavy rain. Clobbered the area.