Wednesday, April 21, 2021


TL;DR -- 400ths, we have touched on that for a while. Last year, a major 400th was cancelled, in terms of people being involved personally. That might be the case for a bit more. However, virtual is what we need to have for a focus going forward, in terms of persistence. Persistence? Yes, even DARPA is thinking of 100-year time frames now. About time. The B52 is over 60 years old, still performing. 


Which one? By right, we need to include Morton and others twixt the Mayflower crowd and Cape Ann's invasion. So, let's do that. As well, after Morton and Cape Ann, we would have a series of events related to the towns/cities as they became organized. See Timeline of Settlement on Wikipedia. Starts with Weymouth (1622) goes through Ipswich (1633) and Woburn (1640) ending with Worcester (1673). Altogether, there are over 70 towns/cities. 

Timeline of Settlement
Massachusetts Bay Colony

What we would like in terms of focus? Several things. One would be a living book related to the descendants of Thomas and Margaret with information about collateral families. Too, more interaction with descendants (friends) of other Cape Ann families. 

On the other hand, the internet is a mess. The TGS can show by example. Who wants to really tackle the beast? This is imperative, as do we want the likes of Musk, Bezos, and others ruling our life via their insidious cloud which stifles, actually suffocates us, many ways? 

For Thomas and Margaret and those related to the early endeavors, we need a living book. The concept of multi-media seems quaint, but there are lots of way for us to go (including educational games). Actually, ought to go.

The main drift? Truth engineering and its requirements. Lots to do and discuss (in that order, discussion needs to be about things of substance, as in concrete - to now, lots and lots of computer stuff is pure flimflam even things mathematical). 

-- Families --

Some families have been researched. There are many ways that information has been presented. We want to have a properly filled in look at the progeny Thomas and Margaret and have started with WikiTree. But, issues of technology will always be on the table. 

Then, we need a general focus with respect to modern events as they relate to the past. One might use Amelia Earhart as an example. William Coffin Coleman is another that is pending some work. 

-- Technology --

We will recap what has been thought about so far with respect to the 400ths and other anniversaries. Too, we need to think of presence every day. And, that presence ought to be of use. Even DARPA (behind technology for decades) is thinking of systems in terms of 100 years. So will we. 

--- Our posts on 400 --

As we see with the portal to truth (, we have a text scroll with tidbits from various TGS publications. This can become a multi-media affair which will persist and become a backbone for future presentations. 

Remarks: Modified: 04/21/2021

04/21/2021 -- 

Amelia Earhart

TL;DR -- Most think of Ms Earhart as being from KS, however her parents had long pedigrees of New England, both north and south. She was a prodigy and wife of  George P. Putnam. They supported the efforts of the Switlik Parachute Company which was started by a 20th century immigrant from Poland (Austria at the time). This links gives us a technology. We will make that type of connection for all of the centuries of the frontier. Why? The 21st century has already shown us new things. Do lessons from the past still make sense? Well, we really need to identify these first? 


Amelia Earhart, from KS, will be part of our series on the Frontier century (post Lewis & Clark). We first looked at Amelia, in 2011, when "Gardner's Island" was mentioned with respect to her disappearance. There is a discussion of the naming on the Wikipedia page. Later, we were contacted by John Goff (Salem Preservationist) who had been searching, too, due to reports of findings that might be related to her loss. Since then, there have been other mentions in the media from time to time. 

Recently, we noticed that a Switlik Parachute had a Putnam as an early investor. Turns out that he was Amelia's husband and soon-to-be widower. Well, the name Putnam is old Salem; on a closer look, Amelia has a balanced pedigree from Maine to Virginia with stops in-between, CT, NY, MD, and PA. 

Amelia and chute drop
(see history of parachute, below)

So, all three are cousins, of some sort to be sorted out (it's easy on this side of the pond since New England kept good records). Which brings up this adage: what's in a name? We'll get to that. The focus ought to be Poland, though, in its many configurations while the dynamics here played out (over 400 years). Switlik in Poland is like some families in Brit-ville and here: Gardner, Porter, even Davenport (several of that name) and others. 

Aside: Former President Bush (1) used a Switlik when he was shot down in WWII.  

For now, a few links:

Some of Amelia's lines are: Otis, Cornell, Swazey (Swayze). That last is a family that came to Salem and split. Not unusual. One part stayed in Salem and its surrounds. The other went to Long Island and branched from there. BTW, the journalist (TV) and the actor (dancer) are of the southern variety. We'll post more on the northern kin. 

Relates to the west: Frontier century. As well, we will be looking more closely at work related to the 400ths in a different sense. First, we need to look across the board at the 70 or so towns and cities that came about in Massachusetts. Each has its own founding families and history. Too, on any day, we really could look at the 100th (say Amelia's time - end of the frontier century), 200th (start of the frontier century), 250th (Revolution with nods to DAR and SAR), 300th (that would have been not long after the Salem ordeal of the witches) and 400th. 

A technology theme will be continual. Some might say spectral. What's next? Meaning, the 21st century? Computing plus human abilities long left ignored. However, things start to unfold, lessons from the past will continue to be of importance, if only we paid attention. 

Remarks: Modified: 04/21/2021

04/21/2021 -- 

Tuesday, April 20, 2021

Frontier century

TD;LR -- A photo of Alexander Gardner of Lawrence, KS gets us to back up from the end of the frontier century to its beginning. Kansas came out of the Louisiana Purchase which became known as the Missouri Territory. An early split out was Arkansas. So, we need to look at that are in terms of events at the same time that we pay attention to the far west. 


Just saw a photo of Lawrence KS from 1867 at a FB site related to the city's history. It came from the Kansas Historical Society. The time of the photo would have been over 10 years past the visit by Col. Higginson and shortly after the Civil War. This photo was taken by Alexander Gardner who came over here from Scotland. 

Massachusetts Avenue
Lawrence, KS

The area had been part of the Missouri Territory which was a renaming of the Louisiana Territory after that State was formed. We will be looking further at the Missouri Territory due to the western movement going through that area. At the time of the mountain men (such as Jedediah Strong Smith whom we will look at further; also see Rendezvous) which was early 1800s, there were people settling in all of this area. Boone was one. 

Here is an early map of this territory. 

Notice that Texas in not included. However, we are dealing with families from all over this area, some of whom were there about the time of Boone. 

Also, with due respect to the brains of genealogy, they have missed several boats. We will explicitly deal with several of these as we go along. 

Here is another view, a little later. Arkansas Territory ran along the TX border and included OK. We will look at families who came out of the east (Cumberland Gap) that covered that area: MO, AR, OK, and TX. Some of these folks had ancestors who went south from New England. Others met Yankees out in the western expanse, thereby closing the tie of the New Englands, north and south. 

Arkansas cut out

BTW, a motivation? One deals with frontier issues being different than that 'wilderness' view of the east coasters. We might use the label of America's Lost Generation

Remarks: Modified: 04/21/2021

04/21/2021 -- We will be looking into the 400th as an event of importance. At the same time, we will consider a thematic cover, going backward 100, 200, 250, 300 and 400 years. The 250th? Upcoming relook at the Revolution. In terms of the 100th, which is the end of the frontier century, we can use individuals, such as Amelia Earhart, William Coffin Coleman, and others,  

Saturday, April 17, 2021


TL;DR -- Technology allows lots of ways to present data. Something of interest is the age of humans on the planet where the continents are shown with population count through time. Of course, the flow is out of Africa to the mid-east and east and back to Europe and the Brit isles. Too, there is the flow into North American from the east. Then, starting with Year One, we can look at population, mainly in North  America and Europe. And, we show this for the years of 1750, 1800, 1850, 1900 and 2000 which cover the main divisions in time starting just before  Revolution and at the end of the 20th century. 


Somehow, a page came up while browsing that has a video (7 billion around the world in 5 minutes) that shows the human population from early times as it wandered the world using a global map. Then, the presentation goes back and starts from year 1 (CE, AD) in increments of 100 years. We took snaps so that we can show how the U.S. compares. 

This first image shows maps from 1750 and 1800. The yellow dots represent one million people. Notice that the U.S. only has two dots: Southern New England (would be VA/NC/SC/GA) and the left coast (SoCal). Even coming forward 100 years, we only have one additional dot. And, it's huge. New York City (and surrounds). Yes. That is our place for which untold tales are pending being told. 

Before going further, look at the populated regions. Even Europe is not hugely dense. We have India and China, basically, representing the human populace. Yet, we know from the specifics as told by history, that lots was going on in Europe and in what became the U.S. 

Let's step forward through three periods of time: 1850, 1900 and 2000. We will use the map in this image. 

By 1850, there are more and balanced dots in the northeast as we have New York and surrounds coming into influence. However, now, there is a huge spot in the midwest. Chicago might come to mind, but St. Louis would be a factor, too, as it served as the Gateway to the west. By 1900, we see more interior dots with Chicago, again, the center of activity. On the west coast, Mexico outweighs SoCal in terms of population. 

Finally, coming forward to 2000, the spread is almost complete. Except, large areas are not populated for several reasons that can be rated from an element of difficulty to near impossibility. For instance, one can pinpoint Denver and one area with population in a mountainous area. 

Related posts: RendezvousForeign incursionsRivers and moreNew France, and more. 

Remarks: Modified: 04/21/2021

04/21/2021 -- Add the TD;LR line. 

Tuesday, April 13, 2021

Ohio River

TL;DR -- We have looked at things western from St. Louis on out. Now, we need to see how people got to St. Louis. One method was the Ohio River. It's time to look at that waterway whose basis goes from NY to IL on the north and from VA to western KY on the south. The Ohio River carries water from SC, GA, AL, MS, and KY to the Mississippi. 


We seemed to have overlooked the Ohio River. So, we can look at it more closely as this river did more than help people run down the water to the Mississippi River. That is, St. Louis was a key point on the trails west where people transitioned from flowing down the waters of the Ohio to where they labored up the Missouri. 

Earlier, we have had several posts about waterways as helpers and hinderers. If one was on one, and it was navigable without much difficulty, then progress was faster than traveling on land. However, lots could go wrong. Lewis & Clark ran into shallow water early on. Notice that it took hours to unload their boat, move it manually, and reload (that is, after carrying the load downstream). Fortunately, a little further down the river, the depth improved. And, they got out west to the coast and back. We will be getting back to events along the Missouri and points west.  

When one considers the whole of the drainage basin for the Ohio River, one finds that it is quite extensive in terms of coverage of the U.S., the flow, commerce along the river, and a lot more. 

The image on the left comes from a paper that looked at water use (Ohio River Valley Water Sanitation Commission, see orsanco[.]org). The redline shows the boundary of the basin. If we follow this boundary from the top right, it goes southwest from NY to NC. Here it goes through PA but gets water from MD, VA and WV. Then, it goes west through the south (SC, GA, AL, and MS) since the Tennessee River empties into the Ohio. As well, the Cumberland River of KY and TN ends at the Ohio. 
The Ohio meets the Mississippi coming down from St. Louis at the left middle of the map. So, following the redline back, the basic includes IL, IN, OH and back to PA. The size of this basin is 189.4K square miles. Its counterpart to the west is the Missouri basin which we will be getting back to. However, we also will look further at the Wisconsin River (via the Fox River) basin and the Arkansas River basin (Jedediah Strong Smith was killed in this area) and a few more. 

The image on the right shows the basins for the contiguous States. The numbering starts with the Columbia River basin plus those of OR, then those that flow to the Pacific (and others) in CA. The 3rd deals with interior flows, such as that for the Great Salt Lake. The 4th and 5th are for the Colorado River basin.  The 6th is for the Rio Grande. The 10th, the largest, is for the Missouri (see below). The 8th is for the Arkansas. 

Earlier, we took a brief look at an area where the 1st, 3rd, 5th, 8th, and 10th all have water courses with fairly close origins that split out into flows into these different areas. In the below map showing the basin for the Missouri River, we are talking the upper left part of the map. 

Back to the Ohio, given that we can trace families along these courses to various parts of the country, we will also include activity that occurred early in their endeavor. Going back to a look at establishing KS as a Free State (post was in 2016), the group that left the Boston area went to New York and got a steamer to Chicago via the Great Lakes. Then, they took a coach across Illinois and Missouri to the Kansas City area. After that, it was by foot or horseback. Now, this was in the 1850s. Of late, we have been looking at matters up to three decades earlier. 

However, for the Lawrence group, the travel would have been much faster. 

In terms of the Ohio River, it was shown to be more efficient to move goods down from IN and IL on the Mississippi River to New Orleans and then by ship to New England than trying to push things back up stream. 

Remarks: Modified: 04/13/2021

04/13/2021 -- Added image for our portal. 

Friday, April 9, 2021

William Gardner

TL;DR -- After seeing his house, we went looking and found more documentation which is presented without much commentary. 


William Gardner owned the Wentworth-Gardner House. He had children. The following list provides some information about William and his family. 

We are working on identifying the early ancestry of William Gardner. 

Remarks: Modified: 04/11/2021

04/11/2021 -- Added image for our portal. 

Thursday, April 8, 2021


TL;DR -- Borders were fluid for a while in the western part of the U.S. But, that didn't keep the mountain men from their work. The fur companies pulled the guys together to trade. The characters? Some are well known, such as Jedediah Strong Smith whom we picked due to his being a northern New Englander (his family). But, there are many more to consider. 


Rendezvous sites
Our last post looked at countries involved in the west of what became the U.S. as borders were fluid for quite some time. We have mentioned a few times that we want to look at the early activity out west in relation to what was happening back east. As well, we will look at the families of those who were the early travelers. And, for early times, we are talking post the Louisiana Purchase and before the massive movement started two decades before the Civil War. Of course, after that early time, there will be several of points of history to consider with respect to the middle of the country. 

The Fur Trade site has an interesting collection of photos and text related to the subject. The site's owner (O.N. Eddins) lives and works (Veterinarian) in Wyoming and has been active participant in historical research related to the area.  Prior to the establishment of the Rendezvous, trappers took their pelts back to St. Louis. This was facilitated by the Missouri River. However, it was a shorter trek to the Oregon coast. There were 15 years with a Rendezvous. By 1840, the traffic both to Oregon and to Santa Fe by the Trails was becoming regular. 

Beaver, which supplied the prime pelt, became rare due to too much harvesting. As well, the fashion tastes in London changed. 

Travels of
Jedediah Strong Smith

Remarks: Modified: 04/09/2021

04/09/2021 -- The free-spirited ones of the early west were from several places. For those from the U.S. (this is post the Louisiana Purchase, though boundaries were still being settled), many were from the south. We're looking for New England connections (Smith, Trask, Wyeth, and a few more). There were a few from the middle region, like PA. The folks from New France were out there earlier than the rest. Then, we had lots of guys coming in from Europe. So, the American West? There is no other counterpart on the planet, and that whole experience can use further attention. ... Added the TL;DR line. 

Border conflicts

TL;DR -- Earlier, we went west, looking at pre-and-post Civil War movement across the country. Too, we started to look at the players beyond New England (north and south). New France and New Spain were here too, all of the time. So, seeing some of the activity of New France got us looking at the west prior to Jefferson's deal. Too, Lewis and Clark saw some of the activity. So, we will look into these matters until a few questions are satisfactorily answered. 


In looking at the western movements earlier, we wrote about Jedediah Strong Smith, considered the other parties (such as New Spain and New France), got more into other early travelers like the trappers, and kept looking at information that is available. And, we can see that more information is now being available which does indicate that the web has some benefit in research as it was supposed to have. 

Jedediah covered a lot of area. But, where he was has significance for the U.S. as we see it now. There is more information about his death now on Wikipedia. Too, he went west out of St. Louis which we will look at further. One reason to use Jedediah is how many places he went and early on which means not long after Lewis and Clark's trek became well known. Jedediah dealt with Great Britain in the northern regions as things had not settled. Oregon was still a dream. He had a run-in with Spain in the lower part of California. He was killed by Native Americans in territory that belonged to New Mexico. 

His peer list is long including many well-known names that we will get into, such as Bridger, McLoughlin, Ashley, Glass (Revenant), and many more. A couple of Gardners were in the area which we are researching Also, Jedediah was mauled by a grizzly bear and lived. 

For now, here a some links to additional information. 

  • Lewis and Clark - Early commerce seen by them on their trek. 
  • Lewis and Clark - Early Missouri fur trade. 
  • Oregon Country - New Spain was there plus New France. We are looking at the territory prior to the final resolutions that created the borders of Washington and Idaho. 
  • Hudson's Bay Company - Though started in 1670 back east, the HBC was involved in the west early on. They established a line from Fort Vancouver (now British Columbia) to London. 

Remarks: Modified: 04/09/2021

04/09/2021 -- Used this in a look at the Rendezvous which lured the trappers to a meeting.  

04/09/2021 -- Added the TL;DR. 

Sunday, April 4, 2021

In the small

TL; DR -- Note that the SAR/DAR databases are useful. Looking at William Gardner who is mentioned by SAR, not DAR. There are several families involved in this study. And, there are documents from the time as William was an agent for the new country in New Hampshire. Need to settle Williams ancestry. 


Lately, we found out that SAR has been updating their website with information about applications. Earlier, we referenced NSDAR and their database in terms of research. In summary, these two organizations have a focus that starts with the Revolution and comes forward. Both provide information about members and their Patriots. One can see relationships between families which can help applicants. Also, the information has been proven though one needs to consider guidelines and rules with regard to the use of this information. 

Too, one can see where there is an absence. It turns out that a recent research project dealt with a Patriot that is in the SAR database with no applications node but is missing from the one of NSDAR. So, we will be looking at that more closely. 

  • SAR entry - William Gardner who was featured in our last post: Wentworth-Gardner House, in Portsmouth NH. There were several William Gardners, but we know that this is the right William (P-164166) due to the birth and death years. The record shows his early service, which was when he had a rank of Ensign. 

Taking the case of DAR further, their database is built from applications. The interesting aspect is that they have used the same approach for over 100 years, though there have been changes in technology as we all know. However, consistency and stability are two requirements not always being met by computer systems, so DAR's efforts in this regard is to be appreciated. So, yes, our technology focus? It will continue. 

However that will be addressed later. Our next post will summarize what we have learned about William Gardner. Basically, later than shown in the SAR database, he was a supplier. He and General Washington had some disagreement. Hence the title of this post. We all think of the Revolution and the U.S. in terms of the Commander in Chief and the first President. However, lots and lots of other people were involved. 

Some get attention. We will be adding to that mix as we continue our research. As well, Alexander Hamilton exchanged some letters with William. We will be digging deeper into that. Again, 'in the small' really deals with where the rubber meets the road. With respect to William Gardner, we found some information on his children and later life. There are a few official documents that mention him (Letter to GW, 16 Aug 1779).  

In the large, though, supplying the Revolution was difficult for many reasons. We will be looking at that. There is some mention that William paid out of his own pocket. We all know that there were funding issues. Actually, we might just pop forward and compare notes about this issue in the time of the U.S. Civil War. We already looked at Col. Thomas Wentworth Higginson's effort at raising troops. 

Lots of error-full events now result from knowledge of scale being lost. One might say that we see top-down impositions as fault causers. Too, though, too much fantasy (SciFi, what have you, Hollywood, ...) is the same issue. Hype versus reality with respect to AI. Sheesh, just caught the esteemed WSJ adding to the problem. Never thought that we would see that. Oh yes, scale? The whole of the internet has raised that to levels unanticipated the past couple of decades. 

You see, with regard to the U.S., history might have periods, however there are persistent themes (memes) the whole of the way from then to now. That's why the upcoming 250th is important (a chance to redo some analysis). Of course, the 400th looks at that which started the thread toward the Revolution. 

Remarks: Modified: 04/09/2021

04/09/2021 -- Added the TL;DR. 

Thursday, April 1, 2021

Wentworth-Gardner House

TL;DR -- Saw Isle of Shoals mentioned; earlier had looked at George's Shoal. Same area, meaning off the coast of New Hampshire and Maine. Then, saw a Wentworh-Gardner House mentioned. Went to look. Identified the owners, including Gardner whose family was traced back to 1680. Several prominent Massachusetts (and Essex County) families involved in the story. 


Back when we were researching the Bostonian (Barque), we did saw a reference to George's Shoal but did not look further. The reference pertained to danger with a depth of a few meters in some places. The recent American Ancestor had an article of the families who lived on the Isle of Shoals which has nine island that are split between Maine and New Hampshire. What families were these? Well, Thomas Morton was sent there after his run-in with Endicott at Merry Mount. So, there are several things about that story that could be further researched, with All Things Gardner in mind. 

Well, on further search, we see that those who are interested in the Isles of Shoals also are reminded of the Wentworth-Gardner House in Portsmouth, NH. It didn't take much to get information on the house and its builder. But who was Gardner? The map of the area showed streets with names of Massachusetts families, like Pickering, Cutting, and more. Finally, we see that a Major William Gardner bought the house after the Revolution. The house has several interesting features, such as the Gardner chamber and gets attention from many groups: Historic Places, Architectural History, Wentworth-Gardner Historic House Association

On further research, there were articles on the house in the local publications: Among the Ghosts of Gardner Street; Rambles about Portsmouth (1873 book with lots to digest). 

We learned that one of the Gardner sons was a publisher of The New Hampshire Gazette. Also, Gardner worked for Wentworth. A daughter married Abraham Wendell. And, there are records to review: Quincy, Wendell, Holmes, and Upham Family Papers.  

As said, Massachusetts family names intrigue. So, we will look further at where William Gardner originated. He was born in 1751. 

--- Additional information --

William, son of John, was a descendant of David Gardner and Margaret Cate. William was assigned by Gen. George Washington to obtain supplies which he did many times with his own money. Rambles about Portsmouth is available via Google Docs. The author, Charles Warren Brewster, is a descendant of old man Brewster. 

David Gardner, supposedly, was born in New Hampshire. 

Remarks: Modified: 04/09/2021

04/02/2021 -- Added photo of the house after restoration plus some information on the families involved.  

04/09/2021 -- Added the TL;DR. 

Tuesday, March 30, 2021

Abraham and Robert

TL;DR - There have been several attempts to link Lincoln with Lee (Civil War guys, different sides). One researcher is a descendant of Lion Gardiner. This post is with respect to an article in the periodical of the NEHGS that looks at popular genealogy and history. And, it affords an opportunity to reference earlier posts. 


Last time, we looked at some analysis, of earlier work (Hectoring) that was done 100 years ago, which was reported in an article that noted how easy it is for creative moods to influence data interpretation. This is fine in some cases, not so in history. In this case, 1902, and later, work was revisited and reviewed using modern analytical techniques. Okay. That type of thing is expected with scholarly work. The avenue for reporting these findings was the Winter 2021 issue of the American Ancestry of NEHGS. 

That same issue had another article with the subject of the relationship between Abraham Lincoln and Robert E. Lee. First, we have to mention that FamousKin passed the test with flying colors as they pointed to this article. Their words were "finally ... put this question to rest" in a recent post at the Famous Kin site.  

What got us to look further was that the son of John Tyler (President) challenged the report of a relationship not long after it was first published. The son was Lyon Gardiner Tyler. And, he wrote in the William & Mary Quarterly. There are two things here. First, Gardiner in the name raises a question. Turns out that Lyon is a descendant of Lion Gardiner through his mother. With respect to the family of Lion, some have written about their pedigree. But on WikiTree, Lion's profile shows his parents as being unknown. Meaning, as I have discussed with a known author, Gardner/Gardiner research opportunities are wide open. That means, too, that the Great Migration Project at WikiTree has raised issues that need to be addressed. So, we will look at that. 

So, we will look into this research further at some point as All Things Gardner is the appropriate view. Taking this further, there is plenty research to do as we go toward the 400th of Cape Ann. We have spent a lot of time studying New England of the north, however there are the southern influences. 

We first got an opportunity for looking at the South through our work on Chloe Porter. Her father was of New England and of Mayflower descent. Her mother was from early Virginia which gave us a chance to look at the situations and families involved. 

Remarks: Modified: 04/09/2021

03/31/2021 -- Added link to Lion's WikiTree profile plus added image of Lyon Gardiner Tyler.  

04/09/2021 -- Added the TL;DR. 

Wednesday, March 24, 2021


TL;DR - Tongue in cheek? Perhaps. Academic look at something from 400 years ago had an impact of several varieties on my self. The Hector? 1637 trip. Davenport was one passenger. Another, Theophilus Eaton. Who? Bro of Nathaniel Eaton of Harvard fame (or infamy to some) about whom we will wax eloquent at some point. And, Nathaniel? In the lineage of Dr. Frank and Ann and many more. Anyway. Winthrop's observation at the time is of essence to the discussion. 


The recent American Ancestor (NEHGS), per usual, had timely and interesting articles. One of the articles motives this post for a number of reasons. First, the post and author are as follows: 

  • Deconstructing the Hector "Passenger List" by Dr. Andrian Brockett. 
  • See details of the research at this site:  The Hector 'Passenger List' 

The author's career had a "paleographical and historical" interest. One of his goals is maintaining his "rigorous academic approach in genealogy" which is nice to see. I have been looking for an opportunity to raise the sights of genealogists to consider more than their plodding ways. 

Actually, from where I sit, some genealogists think that their collection of papers prove an existence. Whereas, we really need to have more respect for those of the past in ways not considered. The issue is what does this mean and how do we attempt such a thing. 

Earlier, I had a post in which I referenced Ichnology (see Remarks 04/25/2014) in which I alluded to the fact that we build large models of the old and gone beasts even to the extent of postulating motion. And, from the minimal of fact. Imagination at work? Yes, same goes from mathematics and all of the science based upon it. Some might use magical (you have to listen closely to catch this as it is anathema in the academic world); myself, I would prefer creative. 

Now, after that bit of an introduction, there was the boat, Hector, that arrived in 1637. Two passengers were Rev John Davenport and Theophilus Eaton. Theophilus is kin being the brother of Nathaniel who had a run in with the Massachusetts folks. Stories remain to be told (Gardner Research citation). Actually, we have a  lot more than this to discuss with Harvard, in time. 

Too, one might mention that Winthrop only noted five as those were of his class and recognized as such by himself, albeit with some tension that bears a little attention. 

In short, bring on the academic flavor. At the same time, let's get into advanced logic and more. 

Remarks: Modified: 04/20/2021

04/20/2021 -- For more about this issue, see post on Abraham and Robert

Thursday, March 18, 2021

Pre-Civil War, San Antonio to San Diego

TL;DR - We had our head in New England for a long time. Much to learn. Then, we lifted our sights to New France as they quibbled quite a bit with the English colonies. And, of course, being a westerner (the huge heart of America north), New Spain came forward. So, crossings is a theme that we will continue. And, how about three weeks from San Antonio TX to El Paso TX? In a stage coach? And, then, heading to San Diego CA partly through the area hosting El Camino del Diablo. Lots to discuss. BTW, this route was traveled one hundred and more years prior to the pre-Civil War period. 


This post looks at a couple of southern routes. One was for mail and has been described quite thoroughly. The other was a stage coach route carrying easterners to the So Cal coast and points in-between. The motivation is to fill in a more full picture of the U.S. as we get ourselves out of the New England bias. 

Earlier, we wrote of the first recorded cross-continental trek. Turns out that it was across lower Canada where the individual went from Montreal to British Columbia. The time? 1793. This is not long after the Revolution and before Clark and Lewis. Now, the context of this was western expansion where we realized that we had to include New Spain and New France into our work to be thorough. As mentioned in earlier posts, people went west almost immediately both in northern and southern New England. Up in the north, the Northwest Territory was a limit at one time. Today, this area is noted as being the mid-west. A lot of the western movement went by water. We are looking at the various ways that the crossing was done by land which was difficult.  

However, there were efforts that were quite successful. The Santa Fe and the Oregon Trails are good examples. But, we wanted to look at the lower areas of the country. As well, we always want to note routes that were known to American Indians. An example of that might be El Camino del Diablo. There are other old trails down in that area.  

As we look around, we try to establish a New England connection. We found one with George Henry Giddings. Actually, we found several through the collateral families. But, George and his brothers went from the TX area from PA, however they are descendant of the Giddings family from Ipswich MA. However, the family was successful in Texas, too (Giddings Family papers). 

  • San Antonio-San Diego Mail Line -- This route took over a month using mules and wagons. This graphic shows some of the places that the line went through using modern roadways. Note the distance of over 1300 miles with a time of 22 hours where a lot of it is the U.S. Interstate system. 

The Texas part of this road was over 580 miles. It was used from 1849 to 1882. One variant was called the San Antonio - El Paso Road which Giddings developed. We must look at the stage coach line that existed at the same time as the mail route. It was a different company, but they ran over the same trail in part. This was the Butterfield-Overland line that went from St. Louis MO to San Francisco. Here is the time table and mileage on the return trip. The route was by coach except for a short bit between St Louis Mo and Tipton MO. 

Mark Twain went out to see the sights and described his long journey by coach. Jedediah, and his kind, did it by foot or horseback. 

Remarks: Modified: 03/24/2021

03/24/2021 -- Add the TL;DR. 

Foreign incursions

TL;DR - We had our head in New England for a long time. Much to learn. Then, we lifted our sights to other areas. There were many incursions over time, from the view of the Native population. How they mapped back to the Old World differed but in interesting ways. For New Spain, we don't usually think of the Pacific Northwest. Anywhere is Spain is like this? Of note, is while the quibbling was being done in the East (the Revolution), a Loyalist was making his way west out of New France. Took several trips, including a sojourn in London. But, he got coast to coast in the real way, on foot. Listen up, those who see the heart of America as flyover country. 


We know that this continent was populated prior to the incursion by Europeans. Our focus, from the beginning, has been efforts related to the establishment and development of New England. Of late, we decided to broaden our scope for the future which got us looking at the other colonial experiences, such as New Spain and New France. There were other countries involved early on which we will get to. The motivation, though, is to have a more full picture across time and space. 

We are taking New Spain first, since it is less known. England and France have a history going way back: Edward III had a claim to the French throne. William I invaded England from France. And, in the New World, France diddled with the English from the beginning. As well, the Magna Carta times involved activity by King John and his family with respect to property rights in France. 

We have thought of New Spain, mostly, with respect to the Louisiana Purchase which dealt with the middle region of the country. But, there was also the southwest and the west coast that we need to consider. In this post, we will take a look at the Pacific Northwest. Using Wikipedia, we see the history view starting with the indigenous peoples. Then, there is some coverage of European exploration starting with Drake for the English. New Spain paid more attention to area. 

But, it is nice that the Wikipedia's page looks at the first crossover from the east. This was done by Alexander Mackenzie and was fairly late, considering the early activity related to the fur trade. Mackenzie was Scottish and returned there after his trek. He came over before the Revolution and was sent north to Montreal as his family were a loyalist. We have looked at one Gardner loyalist family. 

As we have seen, New France ventured much further west than New England. They had water that they would travel on going west. It was from that region that Joliet and Marquette ventured down to what is now Arkansas. Later, it was from the western end of Lake Superior that MacKensie went west to Alberta. The first excursion from there to find the Pacific got to the Artic Ocean. That was in 1789. After going back to Great Britain in 1791 and returning the next year, to attempt to get to the Pacific. Ignoring some details, for now, he ended up in what is now British Columbia and can be known to have made the first coast to coast trip across the interior (that is, north of Mexico - and we might add, New Mexico - not the State, but the whole southern region). 

Next up, we need to look at southern New Spain as there was regular traffic from Florida all the way to California, by boat and foot. We will do a few of these posts, using old maps: Maps of Early America 1400-1800.

Remarks: Modified: 03/24/2021

03/18/2021 -- For starters, let's look at two routes: San Antonio TX to San Diego CA and the Butterfly-Overland route that took over three weeks to go from San Francisco CA to St Louis MO. We can look at these both ways: back to the Native American trails; the modern highway system as we did with Jedediah Strong Smith

03/24/2021 -- Added the TL:DR. 

Saturday, March 13, 2021

Victory Gardens

TL;DR -- Yes, the long reach of New England, never shortens. The first effort called, even a motivation for, the Victory Garden was in Detroit MI more than a decade before the time of WWI. 


The New England Historical Society got this started with an article: A Maine Shoemaker's Potato Patch Plan Feeds the Poor. The timeframe is 1893 which is post the Civil War and during a financial panic. In short, a New Englander, Hazen Stuart Pingree, who went west was in the Civil War and stayed west. He became the Mayor of Detroit, MI. We have mentioned how Dr. Frank's The Massachusetts Magazine had a regular feature on pioneers where Michigan featured as well as Ohio. 

So, Pingree gets attention since we have wrote of the Gardner-Pingree house in Salem. Same family? We need to explore that further. Before getting into politics, Hazen worked as a shoe cutter. He was successful enough to have found Pingree and Smith, a shoe company. This is being resurrected under the name Pingree Detroit

1895 opinion

WikiTree's profile for Hazen will be studied further mainly to see his relationship, if any, to David Pingree who bought the house in Salem. Its fame is partly due to a murder where a Crowninshield and a Knapp (link is to a Smithsonian Magazine article) murdered a White, all old Salem families. However, there are other families in Hazen's tree who are New England, too. 

Now to the gist of this post which looks at an event in the 1890s that foresaw the efforts at national gardening during WWI and WWII. This was a well-documented program conceived by Hazen S. Pingree. We will provide a few links to articles and books with some commentary as a way of introducing the subject.

  • Report of Agricultural Committee ... Cultivation of land by the poor and unemployed - This report to Hazen is from the committee in charge of the effort. It provides details about the project, including tables of costs and accomplishments. A consultant, Capt Cornelius Gardener is mentioned. He was stationed at a local U.S. Army fort and helped steer the project. We need to find out more about this gentleman (photo of the Capt with Hazen). The writer of the report was Capt John Conline of the Detroit Police. 
  • Potato Patches - The name caught our eye. This article from Hour Detroit gives a very good overview of the situation and the motivation for Hazen. 
  • Facts and Opinions - This book by Hazen gives us his view of the times and the need for the project. Pages 161 to 177 provide a report by Capt C Gardener. Not only was the project successful, it got a lot of attention. Many cities duplicated the effort. 
This is an example of the long arm of New England as the U.S. interior filled. There were many New England families in that area, as we mentioned, so we need to pay a little more attention with respect to All Things Gardner. 

Remarks: Modified: 03/24/2021

03/15/2021 --  This relates to an earlier post: American Dream

 03/24/2021 -- Added the TL;DR. 

Monday, March 8, 2021

Edward III

TL;DR - Some in the U.S. like to compare their heritages, especially when royals lurk there. This has gone on from the beginning with some families making claims very early. Some of these were confirmed later. Some went out of style. Imagine that: make a claim, then have to retract. One ought to have kept quiet (like a current pair are not doing - but they have the pedigree). But, we're above all of that (thankful for no connection at all - Irish/Polish). On the other hand, we notice good research reporting and want to encourage this, even adopt the best ones. WikiTree stands out for many reasons. 


Using an informal survey, it looks like Ed III has a place of being the last of the royals on pedigrees. There are some who have later characters, however, Ed III seems to stand out. We can go back to Richardson's work (or that of others) to confirm. 

Or use WikiTree. Recently, while looking at the Magna Carta work, we mentioned progress that is observable. Today, following up on some controversy that seems to bifurcate further those on either side of the big waters, we went to look at the status of dealing with Ed III's descendants. Let's just look at two sources, for now.
  • Wikipedia - Edward III of England - according to this write up, he had 8 sons and 5 daughters. One thing that the Magna Carta event helped come about was the linkage in Wikipedia between generations which was a nice feature for a researcher to find. For the recent event, Lionel, Duke of Clarence, was the precipitator of a line that had a later member coming to New England. 
  • WikiTree - Ed III past five gens - this effort pulls together work from disparate groups. We like the approach as it could be used for documenting early colonials, such as Thomas Gardner of the Dorchester Company's efforts at Cape Ann. 
As an aside, in Ed III's time, there still was a claim to the French throne (see image). A few centuries later, the arena was in the New World: New France

It is always good to see the internet used as it ought to be. This work is an example. 

Remarks: Modified: 03/08/2021

03/08/2021 --  


Saturday, March 6, 2021

Prior and next

TL;DR -- Opinions always follow a spectra mode. How these look in the aggregate can be a thing of beauty. There is never any nestling around a center point, for long. A recent event (one-sided deal, per usual, via the idiot tube - never had a TV until later in life). Turns out, that someone claiming a lowly mode (poor is me) actually has Ed III in the past. To some, in the U.S., that means something. But, rather than diving into that, we bop over to the Magna Carta which is of interest to more people. Again, though, this is from the English experience. And, during the 2000s, there will be many times for us to consider the document, its meaning, those who were there then, and what happened later over the centuries. 


So, a duality of several that we will always see. There are lots of these, such as those things that cause controversy. Such as? The US and UK conflict that seems one-sided, with an American citizen dissing HTMQ. Turns out that the one has a link back to Ed III (we wrote of him earlier). This heritage review was developed by Gary Boyd Roberts and Christopher C. Child of the NEHGS. The page has a link to a graphic which is interesting. On a further note, since the graphic is only of one of her lines, we thought to provide an ahnentafel courtesy of Famous Kin. So, there is a lot to discuss as we will be working with our kin there as the 400ths come up just as did the Plymouth folk the past few years. 

So, the prior? About seven to six years ago, there was much interest in the Magna Carta for which we had post here (John and his friends). That event came and went. HTMQ made several appearances during the festivities. Then, the thing was done but with another round in 2025 to celebrate the involvement of Henry III. For Americans, there is a special interest since it is noted that the related thinking was an influence upon the U.S. Constitution 800 years after the fact. And, there will be many more occurrences as we go through time of looking back at this document. 

So, that is the next, with 2025 being on the horizon already. What does this mean? Well, in the U.S., people can find out their family's connection by looking at gateways who are those who came over with this pedigree in their knapsack (or the equivalent). Of those, some already knew 400 years ago. Some were recently discovered to have a connection. Two examples are Mary (Gye) Maverick and Richard More. She was the wife of a Rev. on Winthrop's fleet whose name is now associated with actions, say like the one alluded to above. Richard More, as a kid, was on the Mayflower with his sisters. He married in Salem and is an in-law. There are many more examples. 

WikiTree has what it calls the Magna Carta Project. Using the gateways, they have Magna Carta Trails which go from the gateway to someone involved in the 1215 activity, as a Surety (see list on this page). One thing the team does is work the Magna Carta Base Camp. They have completed trails for many gateways of which there are several hundreds. They have a bunch that are in the process and some being prepared to be scrutinized. 

Why the interest? These are documented lines when they are done. Where else can one go to find this on-line? For Mary, this is her trail. Notice that her nodes for Bigod are 100% verified. However, therre are other trails. For Richard, his trails are in progress. Lines from both of these are in this graphic. 

So, another reason to show this. It's an example of very good work which is what we expect from Gardner Research when doing comparable types of things. One goal might be to do this for the first three to five generations starting from Thomas and Margaret. 

Remarks: Modified: 03/08/2021

03/07/2021 --  Updated Richard's line to show Bigod. 

03/08/2021 -- Put in the TL;DR, later better than never. 

Saturday, February 27, 2021

New Spain

TL;DR -- New Spain covered more area than New France. And, it had land that the U.S. wanted later than did any other country. Finally, a look at the situation. 


We finally are getting to New Spain after spending some time looking at New France.  Doing these other areas does a couple of things, at least. For one, New England dealt with others who were European and who were over here but outside of New England. It will be good to get a closer view of the events and activities where we can 'flesh' out the situation; this type of work makes the study of history to be more human oriented. 

The other thing is that the areas involved outside of New England were much broader in scope which we saw with the Louisiana Purchase. We backed into this study through looking at families that had gone west from both the northern and the southern parts (Virginia and surrounds) of New England. As we were getting familiar with details, it became obvious that we needed to stop and acquaint ourselves with the other colonialist's views. Jefferson did the Louisiana deal with New France, but the area had been under New Spain, too. 

Let's use Wikipedia. There are several maps on the New Spain page, but we like this one for several reasons. It shows the total scope of New Spain. The darker blue region is the original coverage. There is a medium blue region that New Spain got from New France. 

New Spain, colored in blue

Stopping for a minute, we can look at St. Louis, MO. It was founded by French trappers, as we would expect. However, the area had been visited by people from both New Spain (1500s) and New France (1670s). In 1764, New Spain got the area from New France who got it back later, prior to the sale to Jefferson. In the map, the light blue areas were obtained from New France. 

Except, there had been exploration along the left coast as shown by this map which is of the Pacific Northwest. 

In the southwest, New Spain ventured in from the coast. To wit, Santa Fe, NM was an early post. Coronado covered a lot of area which we will be looking at further. Reminder, we are talking 1540 which was the time of Thomas Gardner's great-grandfather. It was about the same time that de Soto ventured up the Mississippi to just south of where St. Louis is now. It was 100 years later when New France ventured into the same area arriving by a totally different direction from the Great Lakes. 

Coronado and his scouts

Lewis & Clark came through the St. Louis area in their 1804/5 trek. The fur business started to explode. And, then we had the early explorers. Missouri, as a State, had entrants on a regular basis prior to 1820s. As well, all of the characters that we have taken some interest in  (such as Jedediah Strong Smith) were in St. Louis at some time or the other. 

Even after the Jefferson deal, New Spain covered a lot of area. Those familiar with the modern maps can see Florida, parts of other southern States, Texas, New Mexico, Arizona and California across the bottom (others, such as Colorado, were above these) as parts of New Spain. At the same time, there were wanderers from out of New England, in the area. Some of these were early pioneers who planned to put down roots. 

New Spain, 1819

One thing that we can do is pick a few families for a focus. Francis Alcott Flagg had a long series about pioneers to the western front. You know, his research was related to Ohio, Michigan and Wisconsin. The area was considered the northwest (hence Northwestern University). Far west? 

We will (continue to) look at the total breadth of the emigration across the U.S. And, bringing in geography allows us to see the reality of the situations

Caveat: Using Wikipedia's  maps. If anything seems out of order, let us know. Meaning, Wikipedia is a volunteer effort and needs editors to keep information accurate and up to date. 

Remarks: Modified: 02/27/2021

02/27/2021 --  


TL;DR -- We will pay attention to technology in the small and in the large, especially that related to advanced software. 


We love Family Search and have used it since we started this work which was over a decade ago. At that time, some of the interfaces for genealogical packages were still fairly kludgy, so we did our own thing with respect to collecting and storing data. Now that we have more curating work to do, some decisions need to be made. A basic issue? 

There is one choice that people make. They can either go whole hog into someone's care by using a heavily GUI'd system. Or, they can take a more independent approach, as we did. There is a third way which balances the two. Many packages, in their latest manifestation, seem to offer better support. But, we like what WikiTree represents a solution to form and interface. The data is easily accessible, however one also has access to the mark-up level. Granted, this is not code, but it gives one the feel. On the other hand, access to support app extensions will be important, too. 

This year, for the first time, we paid attention to Rootstech which offers the framework with which to look at some of these issues in terms of genealogy work. We will browse this information later; too, we will pay more attention, especially to discussions about the future. 

Another note about the future? How AI will play in all of this? What is called the 'deep fake' approach now can generate photos of people who never existed. Too, it can create videos of characters who are not real doing things that seem natural. Some of the current results are easily analyzed with respect to its truthfulness. A photo might be obviously fake; the character in a video might stand out as a creation. However, this stuff will get more complicated as we go along. 

We have mentioned this before, but one of our research themes deals with these types of issues. Part of the work will be technical; some of it will be more general relating to the American experiment and its possible contribution to age-old dilemmas that are becoming more troublesome. We have mentioned, several times, that we are building a portal. Many times, we add 'to truth' with this type of work in mind. 

For now, we will start pointers to material that is of importance plus some on-going commentary.  

  • TensorFlow - From 2019. We saw this contribution by Google to what is called deep learning earlier. And, we have read the discussions about this as being the new AI. The approach has gotten attention due to its demonstrated effectiveness to the extent of watching. These things used by this approach are mostly black boxes for which lots of effort is being placed with regard to understanding what is going on. However, right now, the particular interest for us is the approach's use of graphics. This is not GUI in focus. No, we are talking the very core of our modes for modeling reality and for basing decisions upon such models.  
  • GitHub - This is a link to the material related to the TensorFlow article. That is, one of the modern benefits is having project and code management available for team work via the cloud. Nowadays, you see lots of papers offering their data via this method encapsulated with the algorithms used for the data. We are using this facility for our portal work, somewhat. 
  • Medium - This is the media that provides access to the TensorFlow article. We place it here as an example of sites that provide support in various ways which are going to be important in the future. 
We have to touched upon some of this, in our work, so far: Content can be configuration. And, we will be doing more. We have the technology blog for specifics which will become more active. 

Remarks: Modified: 02/27/2021

02/27/2021 --  

Friday, February 26, 2021

Research notes: Rivers

TL;DR -- The rivers of Yellowstone are featured. Too, there is a map of the water basins of the U.S. showing the large size of the Mississippi River and all of its inflowers. 


After focusing on the east coast as we got ourselves familiar with the Cape Ann venture, we started to follow western movements which had an early start that accelerated after the U.S. was formed. That change of scope led to us looking across the whole country to the west coast where people could have arrived by one of two ways, by water or by land. 

There are many maritime associations in New England to consider. Example posts are Gardner-Pingree house, The Gardiner that wasWhaling Gardners, and others. With Dr. Frank's TMM, we got acquainted with the long reach west of New England after the Revolution. However, going back in time, one sees the need to look at New France and New Spain. In particular, there was activity related to the fur trade that is within our scope; with that, we get into land movement and rivers. The major waterways were those of the Mississippi which cover the continent from Pennsylvania to Idaho. The former has ports; the latter is next to states with ports. In the below map, the Mississippi basin is colored pink. 

See Grasshopper Geography 

The following pertains to the upper left part of the pink area which is Wyoming and Montana. For reference, Gardner River starts in that region, flows into the Yellowstone River which joins the Missouri River in its long journey to the Mississippi. This area was a major playground for the trappers. 

Fur trading started early in the east (New England and New France) as traders bought furs from the American Indians. But, there was more demand than the American Indians could, or wanted, to provide. Hence, in the early part of the 1800s, we see the fur companies having their own trappers which changed the dynamic quite a bit. As well, we have events which gave stories (such as The Revenant or Grizzly Adams). 

There are many rivers in the Yellowstone basin with a lot more to look at; in the meantime, let's just consider some detail. There are two major rivers from the same location but going to the Missouri in two different directions. 

In this area of interesting rivers, we have a couple more. 

  • Lewis River, flows into the Snake River that goes to the Columbia River and the Pacific. This area is colored orange in the upper left of the map. 
  • Green River, flows into the Colorado River, then to the Gulf of California. This river basin is colored yellow in the lower center of the map. 

With respect to nearness, one motivation for relooking at the western rivers was learning of the portage of two-plus miles between the Fox River and the Mississippi that Joliet and Marquette took in their trek for New France. Essentially, they went from the Great Lakes almost to the end of the Mississippi River.

With regard to the Yellowstone area, the sources for these rivers are close in crow-flying terms (assuming they could get that high). Too, the comparison looks at the sources of the feeders/tributaries. So, taking the Lewis which goes to the Snake, at one point the waterways are with two miles of each other when looking at the boundaries of the Shoshone Lake (Lewis River) and the Yellowstone Lake. That is due to the width of the lakes. A comparison of the inlet positions shows the delta to be less than ten miles. 

However, travel between these two would be arduous, at best, and nearly death-defying in others. That is, before helicopters allowed types of leapfrogging not known to the trappers. The America Indians were in that area a lot, making use of what the valleys offered.  


Actually, we are remiss in not looking at the eastern part of the Mississippi system. Let's start with West Virginia which was part of Virginia until the Civil War. This list of rivers shows that most of the State's waterways drain into the Ohio which took lots of traffic west. Joliet and Marquette blew right by the Ohio's inlet to the Mississippi, but they were coming from New France. The other destination for the waters of West Virginia? The Chesapeake Bay, with  most of it going through DC's Potomac River which President George Washington was very familiar with. 

Remarks: Modified: 02/27/2021

02/27/2021 -- Changed to using American Indians. Added the TL;DR line.