Sunday, December 31, 2017

Call for material

We are putting together the next print of The Gardner Annals. It will include Volumes III and IV and the remainder of the issues of Gardner's Beacon. This is the proposed Table of Contents.

There is still time to suggest an inclusion. Like? Something that you have written about your line. An overview of your relationship to Thomas Gardner of Salem. Any other pertinent topic? Notice that we included a guest article on 'Bosworth and Gardners' and 'Magna Carta' in TGA, Vol. III. 

We published Vols. I and II this fall. Next, we will have Vols. III and IV. Then, we expect to publish once a year given the material that is available. 

Lets us hear from you at 

Remarks: Modified: 02/16/2018

02/16/2018 --

Alfred L. Gardner, Ph.D.

This past fall, Alfred L. Gardner, Ph.D., a descendant of son Samuel, was named a Lifetime Achiever by the Marquis Who's Who. In 2016, Alfred 'earned a Scientific Achievement Award' from the US Geological Survey. Born in Salem, MA, Alfred moved with his family to Tucson, AZ after WWII. He attended Tucson High School. As an undergraduate, Alfred was a R.O.T.C. commander at the University of Arizona. He completed his education at the University of Arizona, Louisiana State University, and the University of Texas (M.D. Anderson Institute). After a teaching stint at Louisiana State and Tulane, Alfred moved to Washington, DC to work with the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center with his offices in The National Museum of Natural  History - Smithsonian Institution. Alfred served as Curator, for a time, at the NMNH. Earlier, as a young biologist, Alfred helped establish the displays at the Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum which is near Tucson.  
Alfred L. Gardner, Ph.D. 

Alfred is a member of many scientific organizations, editor of several journals, author of over 200 refereed papers, and is a Fellow of the AAAS.

This is the first of a series where we would like to announce accomplishments of descendants of Thomas and Margaret Gardner. For those, we can do an ahnentafel. Alfred's paternal grandfather and grandmother are fully documented in the 1st printing of The Gardner Annals (Vols I and II). Alfred is also a descendant of Thomas Gardner of Roxbury.


Alfred's line is highlighted in this table that matches up Dr. Frank's 1907 and 1933 books. The index list from the 1907 book is 1, 6, 59, 79, 129, 188, 345. We want to fill in this tree for the first five or six generations, hopefully all the way to 1900.

Remarks: Modified: 05/19/2022

09/07/2018 -- Added Margaret with Thomas as forebears.

02/27/2019 -- This is not really the first. Earlier examples are: Nathaniel BowditchRuth GardnerAdolphus Greely and George William Coffin, and John Goff.

03/07/2019 -- Added this post to the image index on our portal to truth.

11/11/2019 -- Alfred is a veteran having served in the U.S. Army reserves for several years. This example of a profile can have various themes. See the Wikipedia page for the American patriots (and military) section which has a list that needs further attention.

05/19/2022 -- Recovered the image. 

Sunday, December 3, 2017

American manhood

Let's see, from the beginning, I have seen Thomas as an example of the American everyman. I gave him a title of the 'backbone' of the country. That is, his type represents such. There has been a whole series of posts related to this, such as juxtaposing John Gardner (son) being out with the crew that mapped the Merrimack with those of the early Harvard times arguing the 'angels on a pinhead' sort of thing. Too, Thomas appeared to be the first true gentleman of the Dorset effort. He stepped aside for Roger (ancestor, so no conflict there). Of course, he did get back the house when Roger and friends went over to Salem (see Cape Ann, of course and (Not) Far from idyllic). There are more posts on that theme. When John (Endicott) came over, the great house was in good shape, enough to be moved to Salem. So, Thomas and Margaret and kids, evidently, took great care of it.
Puritan couple

Now, switching perspective, of late, I have been studying Virginia. We did live there but did not pay much attention (you know, big DC across the river). Then, I started to research families who were both of the south and the north (Southern New England). Then, I read a book review recently that talked the early times. After all, did we not see the Mayflower celebration, again? So, who had the the First Thanksgiving over here. I remembered a book that I bought in DC way back in the '90s and never read. It covers the first seventeen years. Remember, they had their 400th in 2007 (as we ought to have seen in Maine, too, due to the Popham venture).

But, the new book being reviewed talked about martial law. Even the 'wheel' was mentioned. So, there will be more on this but, for now, look at this book from 2011 (New Men: Manliness in Early America). Hence, the title of this post.s

Also, consider the Wikipedia page on the time of Sir Thomas Dale. My thought was: now, that is something to be thankful for, that the martial law did not take. Subsequent literature suggested how this may have gone down, including the recent book.

But, the northerners were no angels, either. To wit (only one example), selling American Indian combatants into slavery in the Caribbean. They actually did this, to boot, with Quakers, including children.

So, there will be more on this topic. We have to look at all sides of the story (Thomas and Margaret left us mostly with a tabla raza, except for their children).

Remarks: Modified: 02/27/2021

03/01/2019 -- Added the image. We're building an index by images at our portal to truth.

02/27/2021 -- Changed to using American Indian. 

Thursday, November 30, 2017

Gardner's Beacon, Vol VII, No 2

This issue of Gardner's Beacon gives additional reporting on our research activity. Too, we have the first print of The Gardner Annals in which issues of Gardner's Beacon (Vols. I, II, III) are provided in an appendix. This print edition included Vols. I and II of the TGA.

GB Vol VII_No2
In the current issue of Gardner's Beacon, we continue to look at The Massachusetts Magazine. All of the issues have now been reviewed with their Table of Contents reprinted. Too, we have looked closely at a few articles that are pertinent. Both Dr. Frank and his sister, Lucie, were regular contributors to the magazine. Too, Charles Alcott Flagg, of the Library of Congress, wrote a regular series on western pioneers from Massachusetts to Michigan.

Col. Thomas Wentworth Higginson was an early advisory editor. He will be one of the TMM supporters who will be featured in Vol. IV, No. 1 of The Gardner Annals which is undergoing preparation. A descendant of Count Rumford provides a short article in the TMM about efforts related to honoring the gentleman. We will take a closer look. Vol IV will print with Vol. III in the next printing to be ready in early spring of 2018.

The current print version of the TGA (Vol I and II) and GB (Vol I, II, III) can be obtained through emailing for instructions:

See Vol. VII, No. 2 of Gardner's Beacon for the issue (PDF).

Remarks: Modified: 12/01/2017

11/30/2017 --

Tuesday, November 21, 2017

First Thanksgiving

So, keeping our southern cousins in mind, we can look at their early experiences and compare those with the Mayflower group and the Cape Ann Group and other early arrivers, including Samuel Maverick who explored the area that became Boston very early.

And, in 1619, they were thankful. Here are their words (Hatch, pg 45).

    A number of the papers concerned with the initial establishment of Berkeley Hundred survive and at least give an insight into what was intended. The undertaking was expected to reflect "to the honor of allmighty god, the inlargeinge of Christian religion and to the augmentation and renowne of the generall plantation in that cuntry, and the particular good and profit of ourselves, men and servants, as wee hope." There was a very special instruction, perhaps, of some unusual note: "wee ordaine that the day of our ships arrivall at the place assigned for plantation in the land of Virginia shall be yearly and perputualy keept holy as a day of thanksgiving to Almighty god." Was this the first specific Thanksgiving Day in America?
Albeit, this was twelve years post the first entry. Next up, we will recount the number of new arrivals and the deaths over that first decade.

The Virginia effort was commercial. Some of the issues were the capitalists looking for profit. The Mayflower was a flight to and from whatever. Lots to read there and discuss. Then, Cape Ann was, again, commercial. And, the capitalists, in their cushy environment, wanted their payback. So, the U.S. was down the line, quite a ways, however a proper look at our history ought to start with Virginia, especially the Roanoke effort. Too, Maine was settled, albeit briefly, in 1607.

Remarks: Modified: 11/24/2022

03/01/2019 -- Added the image. We're building an index by images at our portal to truth

11/23/2019 -- Lots of 400ths to celebrate.

11/25/2021 -- We'll have another issue of Gardner's Beacon, soon. Recently, we saw this reminder of the Thanksgiving in Maine in 1607. The colony was short lived but full of lessons, even a seaworthy ship built. This is from four years ago before the acceleration of planning for the 400th that was to be in 2020. Then, COVID came along. Next year, Weymouth has their deal then followed the next year by Gloucester. We have written a lot about Maine as it paralleled Virginia. In many cases, the same people. ... Great article, on the subject: Thanksgiving Mayflower Story

11/24/2022 -- Who was first? Who cares? Now, the importance of farming in order for the people to live? That deserves attention; we'll address that as a technology theme. 

Monday, November 20, 2017

Southern New England

Having been given a chance to look at descendant lines from Virginia, I had to take advantage of learning about its History. As I read, parallels with Northern New England stood out. For instance, in the south, there was early migration out west just as we saw in Massachusetts. Too, there were two  rides similar to Paul Revere's. One of them saved Thomas Jefferson. Then, the themes related to Albion's Seed apply to our work.

Today, I picked up a book that I had purchased in D.C. back in 1997. I lived in Virginia for a while. Too, I visit the area often. 1997 was 12 years  before I started to do this historic genealogical work. And, it has taken a while for me to get to read it. Til now, it sat on the shelf.

The book? It had been copyrighted in 1957. The author is Charles E. Hatch, Jr. The title: The First Seventeen Years, Virginia 1607-1624 (text version of the book, archive[.]org) There are various on-line versions that one can find on the web. Some of these have a preview mode.

It was this content on page 23 that got my attention.
    Participation in the affairs of government was another element in the new Company approach. Soon after his arrival, Yeardley issued a call for the first representative legislative assembly in America which convened at Jamestown on July 30, 1619, and remained in session until August 4. This was the beginning of our present system of representative government. The full intent behind the moves that led to this historic meeting may never be known. It seems to have been another manifestation of the determination to give those Englishmen in America the rights and privileges of Englishmen at home that had been guaranteed to them in the original Company charter. It seems to be this rather than a planned attempt to establish self-government in the New World on a scale that might have been in violation of English law and custom at the time. Whatever the motive, the significance of this meeting in the church at Jamestown remains the same. This body of duly chosen representatives of the people has continued in existence and its evolution leads directly to our State legislatures and to the Congress of the United States.
That is, in 1619, Virginia had the first meeting that relates to our current way of life. This was before the arrival of the Mayflower. As the northern crowd gets into the mood (and the tone ramps up, I can hear it out hear in the netherlands, already) of celebration, we ought to juxtapose the whole scene with southern incidents, albeit not with any direct time association. In fact, as I read, parallels are all over the place.

Too, the Mayflower destination was more southern than not.

Many families had representatives in both the north and the south. Some of those who have both pedigrees had ancestors who met while heading west. One example is covered in the article on our flyover country.

Remarks: Modified: 11/24/2022

11/22/2017 -- Looking at parallels will also consider differences: Dales' code (Laws, Divine, Moral, and Martial).

07/27/2018 -- Some editing. Added links, like this one: What is an American?

03/07/2019 -- Added image from this post to our portal to truth.

05/24/2022 -- Melissa Davenport Berry article on the Queen's visit to the area in 1957. 

11/24/2022 -- Thanksgiving Day. The first one was in Virginia. Also, they had food problems like we saw with Plymouth later and even Cape Ann when too many people came over. 

Friday, October 20, 2017

Print - TGA I, II and GB I, II, III

The Thomas Gardner Society, Inc. publication is available that includes Volumes I and II of The Gardner Annals which is our means of reporting results of research and review. Included, as an appendix, are Volumes I, II, and III of Gardner's Beacon, the newsletter of our organization.

Instructions for ordering copies are available by contacting us at

Remarks: Modified: 10/29/2018

10/29/2018 -- Our second printing is available: TGA III, IV and GB IV, V, VI, VII

Wednesday, October 11, 2017

1st printing

We are finishing the cover for our first publication in print. It will include Volumes I and II of The Gardner Annals plus Volumes I, II, and III of Gardner's Beacon.

Our work includes, in part, extending that of Dr. Frank. As such, we will be building a Modifications and Additions section under Publications at our TGSoc site that will cover necessary changes plus new information.

As well, we will have a general inquiries contact at TGSoc[dot]org.

Shortly, we will announce the ordering process.

Remarks: Modified: 10/20/2017

10/20/2017 -- Print copy is available: TGS TGA (I, II) and GB (I, II, III).

Friday, September 8, 2017

Intro page

Over time, we'll be adjusting the web site to be more interactive. We have been using an intro page for awhile now which can point to a current topic.

NEHGR References at TGS site 
We will have another issue of Garner's Beacon this year and of The Gardner Annals. Too, progress is being made on the printing and binding of Volumes I and II of TGA plus three years of GB. Next year, there is a plan to print the remainder issues through the end of 2017. More on this later.

Our new site is:

Remarks: Modified: 10/10/2018

10/10/2018 -- As we review our growing collection of material, we will improve the ability to browse and search. First step is to have images pointing to content. We will add more, such as a search button. Content vs configuration is a continuing theme (relates to the core of computer-aided knowledge). 

Monday, September 4, 2017

NEHGR 2017

Two articles researched and written under the auspices of Gardner Research are in a reference list in the latest issue of the NEHGS Register. These appeared in The Essex Genealogist in 2015. We had three articles listed last year.

NEHGR, Summer 2017
Links to the articles are provided in this table.

TEG copy
The Gardner Annals
Benjamin Brown Gardner
   (and Nathaniel Eaton)
35 (Feb)Vol II, No 1 - IIBenjamin Brown 
Research in Progress:
    Henry D. Gardiner
    (and Gardiner, Oregon)
35 (May)Vol II, No 1 - III

Benjamin Brown Gardner is the grandfather of Dr. Frank (review plus his ahnentafel).

Remarks: Modified: 09/08/2017

09/04/2017 --

Wednesday, August 9, 2017

Research for next issue of TGA

The last TGA issue (Vol III, No 1) covered several research areas. The next issue appears to have even more. This post stops and looks at progress so far.
  • Last time, we looked at Volumes I through V (reprint of article, link to digitized version) of The Massachusetts Magazine. That was really a cursory first look. While going through Volumes VI through XI, we took time to dive into all of the issues. So, we will provide a look at the Table of Contents, again. However, we will start to report on the dive. The next few bullets summarize some of the findings. 
  • Turns out that the co-editors of Dr. Frank were elderly. This time we got to look at Civil War veterans, including their activity prior to the onset of the major conflict. One example is Col. Thomas W. Higginson who was part of the Secret Six and who helped the western cause related to anti-slavery. The Colonel sent dispatches back to an eastern newspaper; hence, we have this personal view to digest. Then, we have Judge Francis M. Thompson who west as a young man following the path of Lewis & Clark. He wrote of his experiences. The State of Montana, recently, published part of this. The Judge returned to New England where he died. Franklin B. Sanborn left us several views of the times. These three are only part of the writers that Dr. Frank collected to support his magazine. 
  • Sidney Perley, the noted author, retired about the time that the TMM got started. Dr. Frank's sister, Lucie M, picked up his work and published in several issues. As well, she reported on the activities of lineage groups, including The Old Planters Society which used the TMM as its voice. 

Other areas that will get further study deal with early times. For one, information about Samuel Shattuck bears another look. He was the son of Thomas' last wife. As well, Nathaniel Easton is in Dr. Frank's line. We have additional information related to research on him and the events that seem to be one-side-ly celebrated each year. An article written under the auspices of Gardner Research was cited in The American Genealogist.

As a reminder, The Atlantic (Monthly) started in Boston in 1857. It moved to DC recently.  There have always been new magazines starting.

The TMM was only one of several periodicals that started and had its day. Going back to the 1800s, we can look at two that related to our work. The Southern Literary Messenger had an illustrious set of editors, starting with Poe (of the Raven). Its run was from 1834 to 1864. We are interested in that it involves collateral families, is of VA, and had contributors from all over. One article on the Lyceum movement is an example. It was nation wide. New England played a heavy role. But, we see groups formed out in the western areas (which became states), too.

Then, we have a story that is New England to its core. Namely, learning about Count Rumford. Born in New England, he left due to being a Loyalist. Now, he did pioneering in thermodynamics. Actually, as a polymath, he worked in several areas. Did well. Got rich. Then, left monies to Harvard. After the first holder (Bigelow) of the Chair resigned, there was much discussion about the future use of the monies. So, we can look at this from several angles. An interesting twist is that Charles W. Eliot was supposed to get the Chair and did not. He went to Europe. Later, he was head of Harvard. And, made lasting changes.

Remarks:  Modified: 08/09/2017

08/09/2017 --

Friday, August 4, 2017

Samuel Shattuck

In Gardner's Beacon, Vol. III, No. 4, there is a little bit of bio information on Samuel Shattuck who was a step-son of Thomas and son of Thomas' last wife (which wife? we say 2nd, some say 3rd). As the issue reported, Samuel brought back instructions to John Endicott from Charles II for him to quit picking in the Quakers. In doing so, Samuel put himself at risk. Of course, the writ took a long while to take effect. It was too late for Mary Dyer and others. These tales have been told in several places and deserve continued (and periodic) attention.

Recently, Gardner Research had an inquiry about the stated father of Samuel (and husband of Damaris). The issue said Daniel. Was this a supported statement? The first activity was to find the source for this. In preparation for the issue, several publications had been reviewed, including the early one by Lemuel Shattuck and Lydia Hinchman. Too, there were many on-line sites previewed.

We checked the Barney database at Nantucket. The first name was not given. On a quick review of material on the web, there are several suggestion (Samuel, William, Daniel, Daniel Samuel, Samuel William) that do not quote authority.

The error turns out to be not following Dr. Frank who said (100 years ago) that Samuel's father was unknown. That is still the case.

The gist of the article was about Samuel's efforts for the Quakers, plus his experience. Too, that issue continued a time-line for Thomas' children. Why Daniel was picked is anyone's guess.

So, we are putting an entry in our Afterthoughts & Modifications page. Too, we will work on having such additions easily seen.

But, the lesson learned is, if in doubt, don't shout. However, just that brings in a whole lot of discussion, especially with continual changes as we see with technology. Too, though, it gets our attention back to Samuel and his parents.Moriarty mentioned in one of his TAG articles that the relationship between the Shattucks, Popes and Gardners needs a deeper look. We wonder if anyone has attempted that, yet.

Now, having looked at this, there is an open issue from earlier: Wives of George.

Remarks:  Modified: 08/04/2017

08/04/2017 -- 

Wednesday, August 2, 2017

Count Rumford

This post continues to look at the periodical that Dr. Frank published, from 1908 to 1918, with his friends and deals with Count Rumford and Charles Crozat Converse.

First, who is Charles? My question, exactly.

Well, in Vol. VII, No. 1 of the Massachusetts Magazine, Charles wrote an article titled "Thompson in Connecticut" which is about an American who became Count Rumford. There is a seat at Harvard by that name. More on that, below.

Back to Charles, first. Godey's Magazine, Vol. 134 (pg 80) had a nice article about Charles. He was a lawyer and a musician with several known hymns. Also, he is written up on Wikipedia. And, some of his ancestry is covered in J. J. Putnam's book on Joseph Convers of Bedford. Also, see C. B. Harvey's Genealogical History of Hudson and Bergen Counties, New Jersey (pg 459) for a brief bio. In his TMM article, Charles mentions his family's effort to place a statue of Count Rumford in Boston (it is now in Moburn).

As an aside, Godey published the The Lady's Book from 1830 to 1878. That is a long run. The article on Charles (see above) is quite good.

Benjamin Thompson.jpgNow, to Count Rumford. He was born Benjamin Thompson in 1753 in Woburn, MA. Being a Loyalist, he ended up in Europe and had quite good success. Benjamin was an early thermodynamics researcher: Rumford’s calorific and frigorific radiation. Also, he has wide influence. For the Rumford Medal that is given by the Royal Society, we see a whole lot of illustrious names. For instance, Michael Faraday received the award in 1846.

Benjamin, also, left funds to Harvard for the Rumford chair that was first held by Jacob Bigelow. When Jacob resigned, Benjamin Peirce (father of Charles Sanders Peirce - more on this later due to some interesting connections) got involved as a replacement was considered. Eventually, Benjamin Peirce got the Rumford chair rolled into the new ‘practical’ school (Science at Harvard University) related to science and engineering (that is, getting away from counting angels on a pin head). There is a lot to know about Benjamin Thompson (The Life and Legend of Count Rumford).

Note (12/24/2021) -- Harvard material on Rumford and his daughter. Also, Encyclopedia [.] com.


Commercial site with links to information about Count Rumford.

Remarks: Modified: 12/24/2021

08/03/2017 -- Turns out that Benjamin's money gives us a chance to look at Harvard, its history, it roles, and its dreams (hopefully, more than exultation on endowment size). The platform? Quora: What is the coolest obscure history fact you know?

Another side of the story, Charles W. Eliot was supposed to get the Rumford chair in 1863. It went to Oliver Wolcott Gibbs.

10/21/2018 -- Used Benjamin in the context of meritocracy or not: Does Affirmative Action hurt Asians?

08/10/2020 -- How did I miss this jewel from Streets of Salem: Rumford Roasters.

10/10/2021 -- The Count features in our history of Harvard (a special project dedicated to Nathaniel Eaton). 

12/24/2021 -- Added link to Harvard material. 

Saturday, July 8, 2017

Kansas and Lawrence

Kansas was a project of New England. Lawrence, in particular, got special attention. In Robinson Park in Douglas County, there is a plaque that commemorates those families who were involved. Some of these came as pioneers. Some came to help and went back.

Plaque, Robinson Park, Lawrence KS
The plaque contains the names of those in the first two parties. Col. Thomas Wentworth Higginson came in two years later with more supporters under the auspices of The National Kansas Committee.

1854 was the year of first arrival. Rev. Cordley covered this in his History (Final migration). Two years later, Col. Thomas Wentworth Higginson came in with more supporters (Reinforcements).

Those on the Oregon Trail went right below Mt. Oread for twenty years, before this migration started, after they left Gardner Junction (map) having split with the folks headed to Santa Fe. There was continuing use of the Oregon Trail for a couple decades after this event.

In 1943, Louise Barry wrote 'The Emigrant Aid Company Parties' which is available at the site of the Kansas Historical Society. In her article, she provides some details about each individual.

The next issue of The Gardner Annals will have more information about The National Kansas Committee.

Views on the National Kansas Committee: Eli ThayerThaddeus Hyatt, Kansas Historical Society, Col. TW Higginson, FB Sanborn, Kansas Memory, KU in LK, Master's Thesis 1923 (Relief Work in Kansas), ...

Remarks: Modified: 07/27/2022

07/25/2021 -- Missouri is where the carving of the great U.S. landscape started. Driven, we might add, by New England. A hole exists in American history, namely the Frontier Century. We need to work on that. We'll think of some piece to honor George Kimball III who died this month in 2011, cuz of Ann several ways. 

05/06/2021 -- City of Lawrence voted to return the Big Red Rock to the Kaw Nation. 

08/07/2020 -- In this post, we are looking at two disparate spots that share a name, however there are many points in-between. Like Eudora, KS. Where "The Wakarusa meets the Kaw" is on their history site and is an example of local lore getting some attention. See "Along the Western Trails."

09/19/2018 -- Kansas saw the first case of the Spanish Flu (1918), several place. One of these was Haskell County, named for Dudley C. Haskell (descendant of Miriam Gardner).

07/23/2017 -- For those in Louise Barry's article, we need to update their information. The Thomas Gardner Society will be looking at those who were involved with The Massachusetts Magazine plus other information related to our interest. 

08/13/2017 -- Posts on Lawrence (and surrounds): Trails WestWestward HoBlogging and suchFinal MigrationThomas Wentworth HigginsonKansas and Lawrence.

03/12/2022 -- Hannah Ropes spends 6 months in Kansas with loaded pistols and Bowie knife. ..., Daniel Webster risks it all on the 7th of March. 

06/24/2022 -- Updated links to Eudora's website as topic continues to be of interest: A Ride to Kansas

Sunday, June 25, 2017

Gardner's Beacon, Vol VII, No 1

This issue of Gardner's Beacon reports on several research activities of the last six months. These will be covered in more detail the next issue of The Gardner Annals (to be published later in 2017).
Vol. VII, No. 1
  • The Old Planters Society - At the first meeting in 1899, Col. Thomas W. Higginson gave an introduction about the motivation which had been summarized by the organizing committee. 
  • The Massachusetts Magazine - The TMM ran from 1908 to 1918. All issues have been digitized. The Gardner Annals provided Table of Contents for the first five Volumes in the issue of December of 2016. In the next issue, the remaining Table of Contents will be covered. 
  • TMM - Contributors - As well, there will be commentary on authors and articles. First up are F.B. Sanborn, Col. Thomas W. Higginson, and Judge Francis M. Thompson. These three were of the 19th century and had remarkable careers. Col. Higginson supported John Brown, brought help to the Territory of Kansas in its pre-Civil War struggles, and led the first colored regiment during the Civil War. He also was a correspondent for The Atlantic and a regularly interchanged mail with Emily Dickinson. Of course, Dr. Frank was central to the theme. His sister, Lucie, reported on meetings of family associations and carried forward work of Sidney Perley.  
Additionally, there is reference to the new URL, namely At this site, we will adapt a new format. While this activity is in process, the old site will be considered heritage (archival). Plus the new site will be the mail handler for the organization (contact - And, this year, we will print the first two volumes of The Gardner Annals with the first three volumes of Gardner's Beacon. We will announce when these are ready to be purchased.


See Vol. VII, No. 1 of Gardner's Beacon for a review of research to date.

Remarks: Modified: 03/03/2019

07/03/2017 -- Forgot to mention Rev. John Wise in the above writeup.

03/03/2019 -- We're building an index via images on our portal to truth.

Friday, June 23, 2017

Gardner Research citation

Until a few days ago, we thought that we were the only defenders of Nathaniel Eaton. Along that line, we, recently, did a post on Nathaniel Eaton and noted his academic accomplishments which were substantial. Yet, he is vilified via Harvard's view related to tales told. Or, so it seems to go. Too, notice that we remark, in the post, about Dr. Frank's ignoring this subject.

Then, very recently, we were contacted by David Danielson Eaton who is a descendant of Nathaniel and is member of The Eaton Families Association (EFA). This group has been at it since 1884 and so will be of interest. Too, they have a connection with descendants of Theophilus Eaton. He was the brother of Nathaniel. We got an update to Nathaniel's Wikipedia page.

As an aside, as the Gardner Research article (next) was being prepared, the Eaton group was writing about Nathaniel (newsletters for members only). We have a copy of an article published by the EFA in defense of Nathaniel (Barbara Fitzsenry The 'New' Etonian (June 2015) "A Discussion of Nathaniel Eaton's Reputation as Seen by History").

This article was not seen prior to the Gardner Research article about Dr. Frank being a descendant: TGA Vol. II, No. I "Benjamin Brown Gardner (and Nathaniel Eaton)" which was published too in TEG 35:1. In our article, we commented that Nathaniel's experience at Harvard needs another look; there have been many posts alluding to this theme.

In a coming TGA, we will reprint parts of the EFA paper. Too, though, we learned that the Gardner Research article had been referenced in an Eaton article in The American Genealogist (see image).

As an aside, many early writers noted that Anna, the daughter of Benoni who was a son of Nathaniel, died young. But, we referenced the notion of H.H. Crapo and the Knapp family that Anna married and had offspring. Too, we have this excerpt from a New Haven meeting in which Anna's information is corrected in pencil: The family of Nathaniel Eaton (at the Boston Library, available via

No doubt, there is a lot to the stories and their provenances. But, it will be good to have Nathaniel get another hearing. Expect this theme to be continued in the near future.

One motivation. This may have been an early witch hunt. Dr. Frank's ancestors can tell us of that. As well, the whole theme applies to today (various ways). To us, it is another example of New England's long reach.


Note (01/06/2022 - see Remarks, this day, for the motivation for the addendum) -- We have seen two The Harvard Crimson ( that were dated 2014 and 2019. We never thought to check further as there were plenty of other fish (gutted?) to fry. Too, we were confirming information about Benoni and lots of other persons of that time and place. Imagine Benoni's life, in Cambridge after his father left first, then his family (who were shipwrecked?). Whatever the tales, the phenomenal aspects are our main interest. But, to be complete, we did a search and found these tales, from the past: 23 September 19405 November 1940, 10 December 1949, 25 September 1979, and 14 February 2007. There are many more links listed by Google to a specific query (the harvard crimson - eaton - pudding - dung); it would be interesting to extend this research (future grant). At least one mentioned the PhD and MD degrees, later extended. There wasn't much on Eaton's Virginia time with a supposed new family. On the other hand, the tale is there. Let's leave this, for now - see Richard Norton Smith's The Harvard Century: The Making of a University to a Nation (1998) and Elizabeth Tucker's Campus Legends: A Handbook (2005) (quote: Goat's dung and mackerel guts rival modern "fast food" legends in the degree of disgust that they inspire. From this account and others, it seems clear that America's first college students enjoyed telling stories that highlighted -- and probably exaggerated -- the most shocking details of their miserable meals at college) which can be previewed. 

Remarks: Modified: 01/06/2022

08/03/2017 -- What is the coolest obscure history fact you know? This question, on Quora, seemed a good place to present some of research findings. Nathaniel's experience is first, since the answer deals with Harvard and its roles. Not to condone bad behavior, however we need to look at this from Nathaniel's side, too. He was highly educated before coming over here. He met up with uncouth youth of the colonies. Now, here is an issue. Do you realize how Captains on ships treated their measly sailors? Not well. One might say torture. Too, slavery has been the norm for mankind for a very long time. Seems to sit well with some cultures, even today, that is, misbehavior there on the part of slavers, of several type. Incidentally, look at how the Puritans handled their misfits. Say, Quakers? The look from now to then, seemingly celebrated each year at the esteemed institution, is (has been) one-sided.

08/09/2017 -- In the School of Tyrannus (2014). Left this comment (Some of the 'apologies' (see latest updates on the Wikipedia page for Nathaniel) may have come from descendants (via Benoni who was left in Cambridge). Over the years, several have researched the matter which, to me (an outsider, and in-law, and johnny-come-lately), does need another look. See thomasgardnerofsalem for an overview.) on the page. There needs to be an engaged discourse.

08/06/2018 -- Added Benoni Eaton, son of Nathaniel Eaton and father of Anna (Eaton) Knapp to WikiTree.

09/27/2018 -- Nathaniel Eaton in the U.S. Christian Encyclopedia.

02/28/2019 -- Corrected a typo.

10/10/2021 -- The Count features in our history of Harvard (a special project dedicated to Nathaniel Eaton). 

01/06/2022 -- Refresh on Eaton (7 Nov 2019), balanced with Dunster (our series on the History of Harvard) who was next. 

Saturday, June 17, 2017

Judge Francis M. Thompson

Next up is Judge Francis M. Thompson of Greenfield, MA. This post continues our review of editors and contributors to The Massachusetts Magazine (started by Dr. Frank). Earlier, we looked at R.A. Douglas-Litghow, MD, LLDF. B. Sanborn, and Thomas Wentworth Higginson (Thomas brought troops and supplies to Kansas in 1854 from New England, among other things).

Among other accomplishments, Francis was author of The History of Greenfield (Vol I -, Vol II - We will look at that.

For now, we want to list the articles published in the TMM, in order of their appearance. Both Thomas and Francis were out west prior to the Civil War. Francis spent more time and was a pioneer in Montana. So, there is a lot to cover.

The articles were titled "Reminiscences of Four-Score Years" and started to appear with Volume V.
We will go through these in more detail as they pertain to the westward expansion. The Montana Historical Society Press published Francis' story (2004): A Tenderfoot in Montana. The reprint mentions that the text came out of The Massachusetts Magazine.

Remarks: Modified: 07/08/2022

06/17/2018 -- F. M. will be featured in The Gardner Annals, Vol. IV, No. 1

03/07/2019 -- Added image from this post to the index on our portal to truth.

10/28/2019 -- Mentioned the Judge in a comment at this post: Seeking refuge in the valley

07/08/2022 -- We're adding new material to another post and will link in here. The WikiTree of his father, John Thompson (Thompson-35810). F.M. is the 8th generation

Wednesday, June 14, 2017

Thomas Wentworth Higginson

We admit being late in writing about Thomas Wentworth Higginson. He was a contributor to, and editor of, the Massachusetts Magazine. Earlier, we looked at R.A. Douglas-Litghow, MD, LLD and F. B. Sanborn.

Today, I saw that several authors, including F.B. and Dr. Frank, had written about Thomas after he died (TMM, Vol. IV (1911), No. 3, pg 139). F.B. noted that he had corresponded with Thomas in regard to a topic that we addressed earlier (Final migration), in a different context. We quoted Cordley's book about the early efforts to found Lawrence, KS. There have been several posts about the long reach of New England into the western part of the country.

F.B. gives us a deeper look at the activity of Thomas in this regard. He helped form the State Kansas Committee. He was an active abolitionist. One motivation was the Charles Sumner attack. Charles was beaten in the Senate by a Southern Representative (1856). Too, Thomas, personally, knew, and admired, John Brown (more on that later). And, events in bleeding Kansas had gotten more violent.

There were several names for the Committee, such as The National Kansas Committee, as reported by The National Magazine, in Vol.17 (1893). Wikipedia does not have a page for this activity which is an oversight to be fixed.

Related material at Territorial Kansas On-line.

Thomas printed his notes and letters (in the New York Tribune) from his 1856 visit to Kanzas. Thomas stopped in several towns and wrote a lot of Lawrence. He gives us a view of the area just prior to the Civil War which ensued, largely, from those events out west.

We will look at all aspects of Thomas' life. He is [almost] a descendant of Thomas Gardner of Salem. Thomas was also first President of The Old Planters Society.
  • Note: 03/07/2022 -- Thomas' grandfather, John (#10, pg 13), married, in 1695, a descendant of Thomas and had six children. She died in 1713. His second wife was the mother of Stephen, father of Thomas. 
Several of the TMM authors had ventured west. For instance, Judge Francis M. Thompson, of Greenfield, MA, toured the west following Lewis and Clark. Too, he was a pioneer of Montana.


We used Col. T. W. Higginson (WikiTree, Higginson-380) as an example of the "Blended family" that was so common. This example comes from the early times and was documented by T. W. himself which we show with these two images. First, we have T. W.'s description of himself. 

 Then, we show the association of two of his great aunts with Harvard men: John Thornton Kirkland and A. Lawrence Lowell.  

Higginson and Harvard

Remarks: Modified: 09/23/2022

06/15/2017 -- Thomas donated his files related to Kansas to the Kansas Historical Society. Story of His Life (1914) by Mary Potter Thacher Higginson. "Kansas and John Brown" from The Writings of Thomas Wentworth Higginson.

07/11/2017 -- In 1929, a plague was put in a park in Lawrence, KS. It lists the names of the members of the first two parties. Thomas W. Higginson arrive two years later.

07/12/2017 -- Sanborn and Higginson were in the Secret Six.

08/13/2017 -- Posts on Lawrence (and surrounds): Trails WestWestward HoBlogging and suchFinal MigrationThomas Wentworth HigginsonKansas and Lawrence.

03/07/2019 -- Added image from this post to the index on our portal to truth.

09/16/2019 -- The Colonel wrote a book on his ancestor, Rev. Francis Higginson, who is buried in the Charter Street Cemetery in Salem, MA.

03/07/2022 -- The WikiTree profile for Thomas W. Higginson (Higginson-380) is fairly complete. 

09/23/2022 -- Added info from Col T.W.'s book about his lineage. There are many Harvard graduates mentioned, both related and of a collateral family. Higginson was old Cambridge University. 

Thursday, June 8, 2017

Sidney at his best

Perley, of course. While working on the next issue of The Gardner Annals, I am looking at The Massachusetts Magazine, The Essex Antiquarian, and others. Too, we are looking at how Lucie M. Gardner picked up Sidney's work.

But, this little article on chimney sweeping got my attention. That, folks, was England and New England.

Please read the article. No need to say anything more.

Remarks: Modified: 06/02/2019 

06/14/2017 -- Sidney's periodical is available for ready at Hathi Trust: The Essex antiquarian : an illustrated ... magazine devoted to the biography, genealogy, history and antiquities of Essex County, Massachusetts.

Sidney last published Oct 1909. The next issue of The Massachusetts Magazine had the first continuation by Lucie.

06/02/2019 - Profile of Sidney on WikiTree.

Monday, June 5, 2017

Franklin Benjamin Sanborn

Earlier, we looked at an author that helped Dr. Frank with his magazine, namely R.A. Douglas-Litghow, MD, LLD. RA was quite prolific.

There are many more, but let's look at F.B. Sanborn (updated the Wiki page with a pointer to the Massachusetts Magazine - See Remarks, 10/09/2022) who popped up as we were looking at, and digging into, the minutes of The Old Planters Society of Salem. In 1916, F.B. gave a talk about Hector St. John, calling him an evasive planter. The story is interesting.
It is interesting that Hector was the namesake of St. Johnsbury, VT through his friend, Ethan Allen.

There will be more in the upcoming issue of The Gardner Annals.

Too, we will bring forward all of the Old Planter Society minutes that we can find.


F.B. was remembered in TMM, Vol. X, No. 4.


The Wikipedia page has been extensively updated so show the huge amount of work accomplished by F.B. Sanborn. We ran into him through his remembrance of Col. TW Higginson. Too, as a graduate of Harvard, we have seen reference to F.B. during our look at the institution, so we will get back to him. For now, we can add a link to his WikiTree information: Sanborn-1542

Remarks: Modified: 11/16/2022

06/14/2017 -- F.B. corresponded with Thomas Wentworth Higginson.

07/12/2017 -- The Significance of Being Frank. ... Sanborn and Higginson were in the Secret Six.

06/04/2018 -- Added the snap from The Massachusetts Magazine Vol. X, No. 4.

03/07/2019 -- Added image from this post to the index on our portal to truth.

10/09/2022 -- Got to love Wikipedia's technology. Mentioned that  F.B.'s page had been updated with information about his writing about Hector St. John plus the talk at the Old Planters Society which has been published in The Massachusetts Magazine. This entry was there from 2017 until 2021 when it was removed via this edit. 
Had thought today to look at this since F.B. was mentioned on the Col. TW Higginson page. The Col and his family were covered in the recent issues of Gardner's Beacon, Vol. XII. No. 2

11/16/2022 -- Research continues; papers arise to awareness. One, of late, that appeared in The American Genealogist, had to do with the family of F. B. It is of interest to us for several reasons. He's a cuz. Too, there were several New Hampshire families involved with the Sanborn family. Then, a link was made from the immigrants to their grandmother. Our first intimation was a reference on WikiTree in a G2G context. We looked then and were intrigued. Then, Gary Boyd Roberts wrote of Sanborn, yesterday, in the context of his Royal Descent book (three vols) which just went to the printer. The post by GBR: Royal News Since the Release of Royal Descents of 900 Immigrants to the American Colonies, Quebec, and the United States. Second Edition. As well, today, I put a link to this post on the F.B. Sanborn page on Wikipedia (the Talk page). As an aside, this list of posts references F.B. and his work and life. 

Thursday, June 1, 2017

The Old Planters Society

Thomas Wentworth Higginson was the first President of The Old Planters Society (TOPS) that instituted in 1899. Frank A. Gardner, M.D. was Vice-President. The members list consists of illustrious descendants of the early colonists (see below).

The following documents are found at
In the pamphlet, published June 19, 1900, there is an overview of the society (page 11) and its motivations. We have seen this mentioned elsewhere, but one purpose was educational. And, one focus was to get those here before 1630 included in historical looks, excluding the "Mayflower people." 

The Thomas Gardner Society, Inc. agrees with this view and will carry this forward using The Gardner Annals. The issue for Vol. IV, No. 1 is in preparation.  

In that same section, we find the reading list of the Society. These are on our bibliography, but we will be looking at them again. 

Finally, the pamphlet starts out with a talk by Col. Higginson. It was titled "The Alliance between Pilgrim and Puritan in Massachusetts." The TOPS published many talks which we will document. 

Of note, briefly, though, is that in 1900, Col. Higginson was 77 years of age. Many other members were elderly.

Dr. Frank and his sister were much younger. Too, later, Lucie M. Gardner was Secretary of the TOPS. TOPS published via The Massachusetts Magazine (started printing in 1908) while it was published. Lucie edited a section that was titled "Pilgrims and Planters" that reported on meetings of the TOPS, offered commentary, and gave notice of the activity of other organizations, such as the Balch Family Association and The Gardner Family Association. The TMM ceased publishing in 1918. 


Earlier, we wrote of this group in a post (December 2012): Old Planters, Massachusetts. A corresponding post covered another group (May 2011): Old Planters, Beverly.  

Remarks: Modified: 11/20/2019 

06/14/2017 -- Thomas Wentworth Higginson and Bleeding Kansas. The Massachusetts Magazine (Vol. II, No. 2, pg 117)  reported that it was an official arm of the Old Planters Society.

06/04/2019 -- Sidney on the Old Planters Society via The Massachusetts Magazine

11/20/2019 -- Sidney on the Old Planters in his History of Salem (page 60).  Starting at page 68, Sidney publishes Dr. Frank's look at the early times of the Gardners.