Tuesday, May 31, 2016


As might be surmised from the earlier post on DNA, genetic genealogists have been having a field day. People are finding cousins. D.A.R. has DNA in its process. Some want such tests to be sufficient. Families are doing grand studies about their ancestry. We all can see the entire sweep across time of human trekking. And much more.

Too, though, the former post started collecting links to technical material. A lot of these revolve around computational phylogenetics. That is part of the modern view and will even more so as we go along. Yet, lots of issues remain to be discussed.

So, we want to bring that to fore, for several reasons. For now, it is mainly to get the issues on the table so that reasonable adults do not run amok. For instance, we see lots of attention given to the y-haplogroup's use. It is a great way to match up paternal lines. However, there are lots of things to consider that might be awry, such as (one of many examples) male siblings or cousins not matching. A few of the reasons for this may be (quoting evolutionary biology graduate of Tulane): one of the Y chromosomes mutated independently in a manner that resembles another haplogroup (very slight chance, however); there can be instances of double Y chromosomes (or just remnants) in the genome but that generally results in infertility issues; the female may have inherited a small fragment (slightly more likely) of her father's Y chromosome; a type of chimerism.

In short, we have technical, legal, moral, and a whole slew of other topics to look at. Fortunately, DNA is a subject of interest of late. That is, we are a couple of decades from first use, several troublesome aspects have been seen and handled, things are getting even more complicated, etc.

Let's use a recent article in The Atlantic to gather material: The False Promise of DNA Testing. The article has a forensic focus, after all CSI (et al) has brought the potential uses to everyone's sight, but the lessons apply to genealogy. What we did not see were the mis-uses, that is, not until after the fact (except, perhaps via some probabilistic notion which usually underestimated the potentials for abuse).

So, this collection is an addition to the prior list which will be organized at some point.
    MathWorks () - A little about the algorithm. 
These links pertain to the use of advanced computing in the interpretative area of DNA analysis in an area that can have serious impact on people. Another technical example of this type of approach was in the last list (Classifying Haplogroup from Y data) which applies directly to our interests.

There are many other steps in the DNA process to discuss, as all along there is computational assistance. We expect to lay out a bit of details about these.

Remarks: Modified: 12/18/2016

06/01/2016 -- Note the source of quote on replication issues. 

06/10/2016 -- Genome Research

06/17/2016 -- Notes about review. Starting with Mendel's work, then insights about genes, chromosomes. Then, we get to modern lab processes with instruments that are enabled via computation. Marking and analysis, for example. We have foundational issues related to mathematics. On the interpretation side, there are local views and grand themes. Predictive-ness an issue. And, finally, memes and their analog ought to come into play.

11/23/2016 -- A recent ACM Communications (Sex as algorithm) had an article by a gene specialist (biology) and a computational mathematicians. There is a little remark by the authors that things are not as clear as many seem to think. "Gene: A unit of heredity and a region of the DNA that encodes a functional product. It is thought that humans have more than 20,000 of these. However, now that coding is known to be far more complex than originally thought, it is no longer clear how to define these units and their boundaries."We will look at this further in the upcoming The Gardner Annals.

12/18/2016 -- Article about DNA published in The Gardner Annals, Vol. III, No. 1.

Friday, May 27, 2016

Bosworth and more

Context: New Science.


Earlier, we looked at the Richard III and Gardner. In our first year, we ran across the story of how the Tudors came to be. At that time, there were stories, even on Wikipedia. After some discussion (some seemingly vindictive), parts of the story were suppressed.

So, now, we will do a review. This is a start based upon recently acquired information.

This is a nice little site: Archeology Data Service. Let me quote one page: The Burgundian chronicler Jean Molinet chronicled the following  “Richard suffers an ignominious death, trying to flee from the field, at the hands of a Welshman armed with a halberd (therefore presumably a lower ranking soldier), whilst attempting to flee the field of battle.” See this report on Bosworth Military History.

This brief review is about a 1991 book that covers some of the Gardner connection. Looking at this Maryland family allowed me to get into other Gardner families. We will be updating the list (Gardners and Gardners - second most-read post). Also, I have had the chance to get familiar with the southern region (Disclosure: Spent over three years in the NOVA/MD region of DC. Unfortunately, I have not spent significant time in northern New England, yet.). Northerners, be aware that there were two "Paul Revere" types of ride in the south, namely Virginia and South Carolina.

Before leaving, I need to show the other side: Supposed daughters of an Earl.

Again, Gardner Research (DNA, et al) deals with all things Gardner. Help us present to most-supported material as well as make available all of the alternative bits of information. After all, the world is fuzzy (yeah, Zadeh).

Remarks: Modified: 06/11/2019

07/09/2016 -- On Richard III and Gardners.

07/10/2016 -- Mission of The Richard III Society. It is good to see 500 years back being studied. We wish to do similarly for Thomas and Margaret.

07/12/2016 -- We need to be like those doing Ichnology. Added context to front of post.

12/18/2016 -- Article about the subject published in The Gardner Annals, Vol. III, No. 1.

10/10/2018 -- We just printed TGA Vols III and IV (available for purchase) which contains David T. Gardner's articles about the Gardners, Bosworth, and Tudors. As well, historical author, Douglas Richardson, has William Gardner in his books (Plantagenet Ancestry, Magna Carta Ancestry and Royal Ancestry) with his marriage to Helen Tudor (see Our Royal, Titled, Noble, and Commoner Ancestors & Cousins site).

06/11/2019 -- As mentioned, I have heard from about all of the Gardner/Gardiner families who have pre-Revolutionary ancestors both in northern and southern New England. Several times, I was able to help them identify their migrating forebear. Beginner's luck? On WikiTree, there was a question about Richard Gardiner, born about the same time as Thomas of Salem, who came into Maryland. I have various notes about this family that I need to collect. The WikiTree question was: Who were Maryland Immigrant Richard Gardiner's (b1592) parents? Not sure who asked. The date of the question was 24 Jul 2018. It was about then that we were discussing Margaret Fryer, wife of Thomas of Salem. I left a comment. We don't know much about Thomas, either. Recently, there was an answer by William Good. His research notes (on the Gardiners) can be found at rootsweb[dot]com. Also, this pertains to several themes, including existing material (books, et al) some of which are referenced above, in the FYI context. Evidently, I'll need to put up a 'sorting out' category, at some point.

Wednesday, May 18, 2016

The almost forgotten

Prior to (northern) New England and its history, we had the southern "New England." Of late, I have had the opportunity to look further at that era and area. Not only did some come up north from Virginia, many New Englanders went south.  This movement started early. Below are a few tidbits that have special interest as they show parallels. 
    -- As there was western movement early in Massachusetts, so too was there a western push down south. In Massachusetts, we can use the example of Ipswich Canada which was an effort sponsored by people in Ipswich. The ancestors of Susan Graves supported the effort. The first husband (Joshua Johnson) of her great-grandmother (Elizabeth Pushee) was killed. They had married in Groton. Elizabeth moved back to Ipswich proper.

    In Virginia, we know about Jamestown (capital of Virginia Company) being founded in 1607. There was an effort to move west in order to claim land. Because travel is facilitated by roads, there were early efforts to clear paths just as there were in early Massachusetts. Dr. Frank writes of the work of Thomas and his sons doing surveying for this effort. In Virginia, one road was nicknamed "Three Notch'd Road." It ran from Richmond to the Shenandoah Valley by 1730.

    By the early-1700s, there was regular correspondence between western counties and Williamsburg (capital of Virginia Colony). And, this facilitated expansion. James Madison's family moved out west in the 1730s. Monticello dates from the 1760s. 
    -- New England in the north has its Paul Revere. New England in the south had two (Francis and Jack). Francis Salvador rode 30 miles in South Carolina in 1775. He died in the ensuing battle but has not been forgotten (see military.com).

    Jack Jouett did his ride of 40 miles in Virginia in 1781. Part of his ride was along the Three Notch'd Road. Lafayette, himself, was familiar with that road. We think of the Marquis as being up in the north; but, he did, later on, spend time in Virginia. 

Just as the northern New England has its sources for historic and genealogical research, so, too, does the southern New England. One very good resource is the William and Mary Quarterly which has been very helpful.

Remarks: Modified: 11/20/2017

05/30/2016 -- Bill O'Reilly's latest books has a story about the Swamp Fox (Francis Marion) and General Richard Richardson (findagrave). The former's harassment of the British down south helped Washington get things together in the north. 1780 was the time. Richardson was dead. His widow sent a son to war Marion about the size of a loyalist's unit. In retribution, Colonel Tarleton destroyed the widow's property after digging up her husband's grave.

08/26/2016 -- Of late, we have been researching Gardner families in the south. That would include PA and NJ as well as those areas further south, VA and NC. Of those southern Gardners, some went down after being in New England. Others came into the southern region. Then, there were families that came up through the Caribbean. This post looked at some similarities and barely scratched the surface. Soon, we'll post some thoughts on the times around Rev. John Wise's tax rebellion (IPswich, MA - peaceful albeit the good Reverend was thrown into the clink) and the King Philip War. Down south, we had Bacon's Rebellion.

09/09/2016 -- Seeing a writeup of the oldest bridge, in Philly, PA, got me to looking at the eastern King's Highway (Charleston to Boston). Being western by birth, the CA version was familiar (El Camino Real).

11/20/2017 -- We will be looking more closely at the south.

Saturday, May 14, 2016

DNA and genealogy

Recently, Gardner Research was contacted with a DNA question. A researcher who had hit a brick wall over a decade ago decided to be subjected to DNA analysis. His results matched up with that of earlier kits that had been submitted.

Some of the results seemed to show relationships between various Gardner families. That is one of our interests. Details will follow at some point. Overall, there was quite a variety.

So, that was a sufficient trigger event to get us to start to look at DNA in terms of "all things Gardner." As we gather information, we will add to this list (year shown if not current). 
We will also get links to all of the Gardner-related research done so far.

Note: For this list, we will move over to a DNA Project page (at some point).

Remarks: Modified: 06/04/2020

05/15/2016 -- Also, we got our attention directed to a lot of information about the Tudor relationship with the Gardners after Bosworth. We will summarize that and provide a bibliography.

05/17/2016 -- With Prof Hamilton's overview, our list covers the basis. He talks about using longitudinal studies within a family to assess change rates.

05/26/2016 -- While looking at the ancestry of the wife of William Marshal, I ran across a DNA study related to the ancient Irish clans. So, let's say, that motivates to get some DNA analysis going though the discussions of issues will continue in the background.

06/10/2016 -- Added link to Genome Research.

11/22/2016 -- A recent ACM Communications (Sex as algorithm) had an article by a gene specialist (biology) and a computational mathematicians. There is a little remark by the authors that things are not as clear as many seem to think. "Gene: A unit of heredity and a region of the DNA that encodes a functional product. It is thought that humans have more than 20,000 of these. However, now that coding is known to be far more complex than originally thought, it is no longer clear how to define these units and their boundaries."We will look at this further in the upcoming The Gardner Annals.

12/11/2016 -- Britons still live in Anglo-Saxon tribal kingdoms, Oxford University finds.

02/25/2017 -- Still at it. Adding in links.

06/04/2020 -- "Back to DNA II" looks at a WikiTree Project and more.

Sunday, May 1, 2016

May 1st

This is the day that Nathaniel Hawthorne memorialized.

Incidentally, the supposed uncle, Rev. John White, trashed the people who where there. Too, he sort of implied that the Cape Ann crew were of that ilk (not that I'm judging ;-). But, we know better.


Whence issues need to be at the fore of things, as this page shows up.


It is a copy of a now-deleted Wikipedia page that was copied to another site thereby cutting links related to updates.

You see why the web is a bloody mess? Notice the ads. The thing is to copy content and make money on eyes being lured there. Ah, how did this commerce ontology take precedence? Thanks, guys.

Remarks: Modified: 08/06/2016

05/14/2016 -- As we saw with the analysis related to Richard III's remains being identified and associated with descendants of his sister, modern technology does bring new things to the table. And, there were Welsh warriors present at Bosworth, some of whom may be Gardners. We have received access to additional material and will be presenting that story.

08/06/2016 -- More on All things Gardners.