Tuesday, May 17, 2022

John Rogers

TL;DR -- As we continue or pace through the terms in an other-than-linear manner, we next see John Rogers who as born in England, was a graduate of Harvard, married into the Dudley/Bradstreet mix, worked with Rev. Hubbard come into his brief term as Head. Of note will be the Ipswich influence, that is, the Ipswich of Essex County of Massachusetts. 

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Our look at the Heads of Harvard (Wikipedia) has been driven by different factors since we started the work. This one allows us to finish the early Heads with John Rogers (Wikipedia), so that we can start looking at periods. He came as a youngster from England with his parents but attended Harvard. 

Initially, the interests for looking at the Heads were several, but we can start with this list: 

As we complete a first pass through the list, we will tie U.S. generations back to these Heads in terms of general views of the U.S. For instance, D.A.R., in an overview of their mission, stresses the upcoming 250th where the U.S. split from European influence, somewhat. It still had to contend various ways. On the other hand, D.A.R. notes that the whole idea of an American Spirit has lapsed. To us, that has been apparent for some time. 

Does having an old pedigree mean anything? John Rogers married into a family that lived in Ipswich. This Essex County town is of importance to us for several reasons which we will get into. For the Heads, we like to provide WikiTree information: John Rogers; his wife, Elizabeth Denison. Her grandfather was Gov. Thomas Dudley. Too, John had William Hubbard, as in law. 

John Rogers' term which started after that of Urian Oakes was brief. Increase Mather came into the office next. 

Remarks: Modified: 05/17/2022

05/17/2022 -- 
 

Thursday, May 12, 2022

New Spain's span

TL;DR -- Our early focus was on New England and its northern neighbor, New France, as we got acquainted with the history of the northeastern part of the U.S. Post the Louisiana deal, the western expansion came to attention which brought New Spain into the focus. What was the situation in that huge western part in the time of the Revolution? Did New Spain get involved? SAR reports on their research into the matter.  

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New Spain came into the discussion last year, as we looked at the movement to the west which started in earnest after the Revolutionary War. A search in this post on New Spain brings in some of the articles on the subject. 

As well, the Wikipedia article on New Spain provides information including a 1561 map of the extent of New Spain which ran across the whole of the country from CA to FL, through AZ, NM and TX. But, by the late 17th century, much of "North America had been claimed by European countries." Texas is interesting due to its access from New England through the interior or by water. The French had been there about the same time as the Massachusetts start having gone down through the Great Lakes to portages on two rivers to the Mississippi and then down. New France was the first colonizer of Texas which was at the southern end of its extent along the waterways from the north. Later, we saw explorers covering the same area by foot and horseback from the north and east. 

Spanish Texas

Coming from the south, New Spain had displaced New France by the time of the U.S. Revolution. This map of the Spanish Missions (1659-1795) shows the extent of its coverage. 

By 1819, the map on the left  (below) shows the lay of the land. This was after the addition of the land of Louisiana. 

Today, we see huge splits in views between regions of the country, such as those between some in the east and those of the southwest. Our review of history with a different perspective based upon changes over time and through technology will become more regular in looking how 'views' emerged and evolved. 

When we get to the time of the Revolution, there had been decades of maneuvering between the colonials of New England, New France and New Spain (and others). The advent of the newer party, America, provided means for old conflicts to work themselves out. Fortunately, we have descendants of the people involved to study (context of D.A.R. and S.A.R. and those of the loyalists' leaning).  

In 2010, a group from SAR went to Spain to celebrate New Spain's help in the efforts at attaining independence. In their report which gives us some details of the history of the interaction between the new start and the old country, we get another map showing a comparison of the extent of the areas related to each of the parties involved. 

Spain in the American Revolution
By Stephen Renouf, Trustee,
SAR Spain Society

Remarks: Modified: 05/13/2022

05/13/2022 --  

Monday, May 2, 2022

Legacies of Harvard

TL;DR -- Recently, President Bacow released a report by a committee that looked at Harvard's involvement with slavery. The report is about the first phase of an on-going project that associates with our interests in Harvard as an archetype, of sorts. 

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Legacies? There are many. This post deals with a recent report which is very much apropos for further discussions about the History of Harvard (our look). But, there are many other legacies to note, many of which will deal with the U.S., in particular, while others are of a more universal flavor. 

Report by 
Harvard Radcliffe Institute
Quote: On April 26, 2022, Harvard President Larry Bacow released the Report of the Committee on Harvard & the Legacy of Slavery

The site's concern is the first phase of a project for which it provides a message by Bacow and identifies the Committee. There is other information available such as the following:

The list includes the "Enslaver," the "Harvard Affiliation(s)," the "Enslaved Persons," the "Documentation Dates," and any "Memorialization(s)." The first line is for "Nathanial Eaton (1609-1674)" who was "Schoolmaster (1637-1639)" and who owned "The Moor". The list has footnotes that have extensive links. 

We will follow the progress of this Initiative, as it is an example of Harvard and the history of the U.S. through time. Also, the timeline, explicitly, includes the first Head who was the first "enslaver." What we see in the table is that the next row is Increase Mather (who was involved from 1686 to 1701). That points to little to none slavery involvement in New England early on. 

That needs to be studied. Casting Eaton as a sole rogue may have been fun, but the research needs to expand due to Harvard's senior, and influential, roles, across the board. 

So, we can say that this gets Eaton listed in a different context. 

Remarks: Modified: 05/02/2022

05/02/2022 --  On the names, we can look at absences as well as presences. There was a run of Heads that can be looked at. The only 'Gardiner' was in the Perkins family. Other than that, 'Gardner' does not appear. Nice bit of research that has been sorely needed for a while. Appreciate the focus on the American Indian experience. Now, how about the Quakers? 

Saturday, April 30, 2022

Daughters of the American Revolution (D.A.R.)

TL;DR -- We have been touting the series of celebrations that arise through time where we are at an unique state of such. That is, the U.S. start is coming up on 250 years. Then, we have the ongoing 400th anniversaries being recognized. The 300th is too raw, as of yet, but we'll get there. Then, we have the 200th of the Jefferson deal, followed by the 100th of those who were less than a handful of generations back. For each, we can have a focus. This post is about the 250th celebrations. 

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Our look at the U.S. is from the viewpoint of 400 years of family history, where family encompasses literally 1000s of families. Some of these are involved with Harvard, which, thankfully, has been there from the beginning. 

Then, there is the 250th coming up that celebrates the split with the old King's realm. This is where D.A.R. comes in. As does, too, we might add, the view of S.A.R. (Sons). Then, there is C.A.R. (Children). These organizations are merely 125 years old, at most which means that they were not brought to be until 125  years after the start of the Revolution. 

Now, we have had several posts on these groups (search on DAR; we also use D.A.R.). One important one looks at several early loci with respect to Patriots, say Cape Ann to Patriot. This would be a subset of DAR's membership, since many Patriots were recent arrivals in the early to mid 1700s. 

We, at the TGS, Inc., like to add in that we are interested in Loyalists, as well. And, we need to keep a broader focus with concerns about New Spain, New France, and other attempts. 

Now, back to DAR. We were motivated to do this post due to a query about DAR being right-winged which seems to have gotten a lot of press. Gosh, it's non-political for the most part, as an organization. That is, one might say that it's of both wings. There will be members of various persuasions, however they get along as we would expect of a collection of mature Americans. Now, given the question, a quick search brought up several articles and books. 

This is a brief list meant to be illustrative of the discussion. The coverage by time is deliberate.

  • Case for and against DAR (1953) ... we start with what might be called a look at the "old" DAR. 
  • DAR-lings of NY (2003) ... some notion of the current state of multiversity. DAR has extended the definition of what is a Patriot. Rather than just boom-boom people, many types of support are recognized including the old folks who kept the administrative things going in the time of the turmoil (see note about Loyalists below). 
  • Who's a DAR? Answer grows more diverse. (2021) ... even more modern view.  
Before going on, look at this view of the same family with a Patriot and Loyalist mentioned. The former? One of the founders of the Society of Cincinnati. The latter? A decorated general of the earlier conflict, namely the French-Indian affair where the Crown trained the American officer corps (see Regimental History Series) very well, indeed. In this case, the former worked with Washington. The latter lived in peace unlike the reality of many loyalists who were abused. 

Now, the gist: DAR at Encyclopedia[dot]com. This quote got our attention. 
  • The constitution of the DAR mentioned three main objectives of the society: (1) to perpetuate the memory and spirit of the men and women who achieved American Independence; (2) to promote institutions of learning so that the young and old can develop the largest capacity for performing the duties of American Citizens; and (3) to cherish, maintain, and extend the institutions of American freedom and to foster true patriotism and love of country.
We'll leave it at that, for now. As, there are plenty of references to Winthrop's "city on a hill" concept, by allusion for the most part. Too, that the beacon (we chose Gardner's Beacon as the label for our newsletter) beckons and that many follow the call, pertains to much more than the dream of coming to the U.S. and exploiting the situation to screw people for the purposes of richness, fame, power, or what have you. 

You know, one approach to obtaining citizenship is to serve in the military. The reality is that only about 7% of the population does that. In WWII, Harvard had a huge percentage of its students enlist. At the same time, Hollywood actually tried to be part of the action (rather than the fantasy).  

Yes, Harvard (our History of Harvard) seems to have divorced itself from the country of its beginnings, but they do have a responsibility which accrued to the early start. That is something to put on the table for discussion. 

Remarks: Modified: 04/30/2022

04/30/2022 --

Friday, April 29, 2022

Edward Everett

TL;DR -- As we pursue the list of Heads, the sampling has been informal. Today, we pick by family name and look at Edward Everett who had quite a career outside of Harvard. He disliked the 'rowdy' students, one report said. But, he helped get an applied focus in place, namely science and engineering. Harvard over the 400 years of the U.S.? Significant in many ways. 

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Our look at the Heads of Harvard (Wikipedia) has been quite cursory so far. This one was interesting due to Edward Everett (Wikipedia) being about half-way from the start to now. Just a quick review brought up several topics to pursue. For instance, he has a solid New England pedigree; his wife has one that is even more complete. So, we will venture further in that domain than we have before, at some point. This post is a mere summary. 

Initially, the interests for looking at the Heads were several, but we can start with this list: 

After completing a first pass through the list, we will tie U.S. generations back to these Heads in terms of general views of the U.S. For instance, D.A.R., in an overview of their mission, stresses the upcoming 250th where the U.S. split from European influence, somewhat. It still had to contend various ways. On the other hand, D.A.R. notes that the whole idea of an American Spirit has lapsed. To us, that has been apparent for some time. Does having an old pedigree mean anything?

Okay, Harvard? Early on, it might have argued about a universal view where country was mere borders established somewhat arbitrarily. That universal view would have been heavily Christian. Later, a more technical spirit emerged. That encouraged the elite view that was there from the beginning to take strong hold. Hence, Harvard is of the world's upper crusts, somewhat. 
 
Edward Everett
Aside, we'll go back to Rev. John Wise to found a proper discussion, at some point. A pamphlet of his was reprinted by Patriots over 250 years ago. What does this have to do with Everett? He would have been a progeny of those of that time. Too, he lived in the era of the Civil War. 

For some Heads, WikiTree had little information which is usually the case where there are no children involved. That is not the case, now: Edward Hill Everett (Everett-650); Charlotte Gray Brooks (Brooks-2069). However, the WikiTree Profile of Brooks has no regular interest. When we talk New England, the basis, for us, is Cape Ann, or, one might say, Essex County. Brooks has many threads from that little locus. 

But, Harvard is more than involvement with the trivia of everyday life. Oh? We will discuss that notion, too, as the changes seen on the horizon now indicate that some lessons to be learned were not, both here and elsewhere. So, Harvard dropped the ball? 

One commenter expressed that Everett grew dissatisfied with the Head role fairly quickly (one alleged factor? rowdy students). His time in the office was close to three years. One achievement was getting the Lawrence gift applied. 

Remarks: Modified: 04/30/2022

04/30/2022 -- For starters, we can take a brief look at the Daughters of the American Revolution. There are three looks at different times, 1953, 2003, and 2021. Plus, the Encyclopedia's coverage considers some of the history plus the mission. D.A.R. has evolved like the rest of us. 

Sunday, April 24, 2022

Cambridge

TL;DR -- We have been looking at the History of Harvard as a way to study the history of the U.S. Several times, we have mentioned older universities. This is the first post dealing with the subject where we note that both Oxford and Cambridge have had ties from the beginning, back to Rev. John White and before. 

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One of our research thrusts has been to parallel Harvard's experiences via looking at the Heads (with Benjamin Wadsworth and Urian Oakes as our latest entries) over the centuries with that of the U.S., its colonial beginning, and post Civil War accomplishments. But, we realize that we have to consider the old country in our analysis, so we will start to look at the Universities (Oxford, Cambridge) with respect to U.S. history. 

Universitas Cantabrigiensis

For instance, "Cambridge is the UK’s leading university for graduate studies in American History" and offers regular seminars to the public on the subject. On the other hand, Oxford claims "particularly strong connections" to the U.S. We have mentioned comparing events at Harvard over the years with its peers in the old world without being specific. Now, we are looking to use both. 

For instance, Rev. John White's education is of Oxford. On looking at his extended family, there are many from Cambridge, including Ann's ancestors. John Harvard was a Cambridge man; Harvard was modeled on Cambridge. 

The alumni list of both schools include many of the U.S., including modern day scholars. Of interest is, that of the first class of Harvard (1642), the majority went back to England. One of these was George Downing the namesake of Downing Street. They went back to an England in turmoil. Nathaniel Brewster studied further at Trinity College, Dublin and served under Henry Cromwell, son of Oliver. 

As well as current-event issues, technology will be a focus. One of our tasks is to follow technology over the four centuries as it evolved here and over there with quite a bit of disparity until after the Revolution. Too, we will look at classes and trace the influence of graduates. 

Reminder: Count Rumford about whom we will have further discussion. 

In the arts, we can point to Ezra Pound who was at all three places. In academia, the first Head of Harvard, Henry Dunster, studied at Cambridge. Stepping back to a subject still pending some attention, the prior Harvard Head, Nathaniel Eaton, was a Cambridge graduate who later earned MD and PhD degrees from the University of Padua. Those are samples from the modern era and from the beginning with lots of time in-between to fill in. 

Remarks: Modified: 04/24/2022

04/24/2022 -- 

Friday, April 22, 2022

William S. Barstow

TL;DR -- As we look at how New England grew up and expanded, our focus will always contain families as well as the more abstract notions that are always involved after being conjured up by the brains. That is an universal dynamic. A look at one family and a town with their name brought up some "notables who lived there" lists that led to specific companies and activities. Of course, associations over the years accumulate to an almost endless potential for research. Filters, such as relevance, then kick in. But, for lessons to learn, an "a priori" position is almost never sufficient. 

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For now, we'll just have some pointers to material that will support further research. Essentially, while looking at the upcoming 250th, with respect to origins (say, the Society of Cincinnati), we got back to New Hampshire. So, we can tie Patriots back to Cape Ann and other sites. Per usual, families are key in their many relationships over the decades and centuries. 

One of the Founders of the Society was a Gilman which is an early family, but later than Cape Ann. However, they are mixed in everywhere. For focus, we can start with Gilmanton which is a NH burg west of Exeter (btw, the researcher is a westerner used to wide-open skies (east is east, and west is west), so directions with respect to the geographic features of New England are to be considered fuzzy). Let's use two books:

The History of Gilmanton - from 1845, this can be read for free at Google. The opening index reads like a who-is-who. Pg 20 has a list of the Proprietors with a little bit of information about each. Some families, such as Cogswell (pg 258 on), Dudley and Eastman, give a little history of their colonial experience. 

Genealogy of the Greely-Greeley Family - from 1905, gives lots of detail in 911 pages. Access to this got us information about General A. W. Greeley whose crew was left in the Artic. He was a descendant of Sarah (Gardner) Balch. The team that later rescued what was left of his crew had one ship captained by a Coffin who Richard Gardner and Sarah Shattuck. This book has more information about how Gilmanton families relate. Again, freely readable. 

Now, taking this further, we mentioned Eastman who founded Eastman Kodak, now known as Kodak. As well, there was an Eastman Chemical company. Eastman's New York connections will be of interest, as well as those in other places in the U.S. and the world. 

For instance, following links are about a company founded by New Englanders who went south to New York. On looking further, there was Essex County involvement, as well. 

Three Mile Island
plant fact sheet
 
Gilbert was an engineering company that got caught up in the Three Mile Island incident but not in a direct fashion with their product. They were a consulting architect. So, this type of situation is worth looking at further, especially since there is a New England association. 

Too, we learn from history; bringing in family information is a new aspect; how all of the types of research that used digital sources pan out is an open issue and will be for a long while. 

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After Gilbert Associates failed, many employees started new companies using the name. However, this link from a report by Oak Ridge indicates the work of the former company: Feasibility of an unattended nuclear power plant. The image is from a Fact Sheet that mentions Gilbert Associates with respect to Three Mile Island.  

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A few more links give a brief overview of the transitions of the Company. The technology connection is interesting along with the New England originators of some involved parties. However, these links are to show the inception of the last name. 

  • 1934 (NYTimes) - Barstow changes name to E. M. Gilbert Engineering Corporation. This was the manager who came in after Barstow. 
  • 1936 (Department of Labor lawsuit) - Shows both names.  
  • 1942 (Federal Register, NYTimes) - Now Gilbert Associates; notice of lawsuit (July); then, action dropped(August) due to actions by parties concerned. 

Example of several things related to technology, complexity, information and more. Views of history and family interleave. 

Remarks: Modified: 04/23/2022

04/22/2022 -- On two of the links, the paper might have seen our query as resurrecting a page that was to go stale. Or, on closer look, there may be a subscriber step involved.  So, added a reference from Oak Ridge National Laboratory with references to Gilbert Associates as well as pointed to a Fact Sheet about the facility. 

04/23/2022 -- Added notes about the Company's transitions. Next, we'll look for some specifics of the New England ties as well as notice of the GA designs for components for nuclear plants. It would be interesting to see all of the offshoots from this one business.