Saturday, October 13, 2018

Gentleman, every man, and much more

Right now, this post has links to posts from several different points in time. We are reviewing the posts as a means to assess the research done so far, to see where we need to put more attention, and to lay out future research.

This is one theme of many that will be of continual interest. It has to do with Thomas. But, we will focus on Margaret, too. For the kids? We need to get the first five generations identified. Then, there are a slew of topics that are general, such as The Massachusetts Magazine, collateral families, WikiTree (technology, in general), and such.

These posts are all from the TGS blog except for the last one. As well, there will be things pulled from work being done on Quora.


A related theme deals with Rev. Hubbard who talked to people of the time. And, wrote then, too. He gets no respect (we'll look at that). Yes, the Roger Dangerfield of that era.

Note to genealogists: People have being without your weighing in with your assessment of documents. In fact, your research does not make the 'truth' of the matter. You people are mere servants; get over yourselves.

Remarks: Modified: 10/13/2018

10/13/2018 --

Reviews and news

Back in April of 2015, we did a matrix of metrics related to posts per month. The blog started in September of 2010. So, that four complete years and two partial years. The month and year that had the highest number of posts were marked.

It goes like this. Read and read. Then, when some threshold is met, write. Given that the blogger is a novice in this area, there was more reading than writing. Good sign? So, the two years that had a month with a good number of posts were 2011 and 2014. So, what was going on in those months? Well, we can look at the title of the posts and get some idea.

Also, note that the blog uses Remarks which can be quite extensive. So, rather than making another posts, most of the time, there is something added to an existing post. We'll go back and see which of the posts had the most extensions over the years.

So, going forward, here is a report that adds in the other years. It provides the table of counts and then, shows the titles of the posts for the months that were maximum for the given year. 


In August of 2011 (seven posts), the topics covered were contributions by John Goff, mentioning of Isabella of the museum, taking notice of the house built in the first year in Cape Ann, and a few other topics, like Gardner's Beacon, Vol. I, No. 3. But, note that there is a post which is titled 'True gentleman' that will be the topic of a coming post and article. It has to do with the fact that Conant was patted on the back for giving the reins to Endicott when he arrived. He was called a gentleman for letting loose of the power. Well, prior to that Gardner bowed to Conant. And, he and Margaret (we can use that name, folks) moved out of the house. The house? Yes, the one that Higginson, later, exulted about in his writings about New England. It was the fair house where Endicott provided a feast for Winthrop when he first arrived.

Note: all of this was written in various posts and in articles in Gardner's Beacon.

So, we'll get something from that review. Now, going to 2014, there was July and September with six posts each. In July, the posts dealt with John Gardner's early years, the source of the 'first governor' label that someone attached to Thomas, and issues related to Gardner's Beacon (now in the fourth volume) and the website. But, incorporation details were being wrapped up, to boot. So, that was a varied lot.

In September, the topics were The Gardner Annals which was in Volume I and provides our means to report research activities and finding. Guess what? That was the month that John Cook was querying about 'whence' issues and noted that there was a marriage notice that had been digitized. At the time, I posted the news at WikiTree (see the tree for Dr. Frank). This year, there was a discussion about the three wives proposed by Anderson of NEHGS, however we can now show that there were two.

We took these two years, 2011 and 2014, since they were covered in the earlier post. Next up, we'll look at the remaining years. In the meantime, the table is through September of 2018.
 
Note: at some point, will put in links to posts dealing with these subjects.

Remarks: Modified: 10/13/2018

10/13/2018 --

Sunday, September 30, 2018

TGA III and IV, print of

At long last (early discussion, June) and with the summer being over, we have completed the compilation for print of The Gardner Annals, Vols. III and IV, and Gardner's Beacon, Vols. IV, V, VI, and VII. This is a preview look (see Table of Contents, below), from the publisher. 


We have ordered both color and black/white copies and expect to receive our shipment from the printers within the week. Instructions for ordering can be obtained by notifying us at publications@tgsoc.org. 

The issue contains all of the Table of Contents for The Massachusetts Magazine. Too, we have articles concerning history and genealogy. As well, future topics are discussed, briefly. 

Remarks: Modified: 10/14/2018

10/14/2018 -- We have the printed copies in house, reading for shipping.

Saturday, September 22, 2018

Comment and Criticism

We will have our second print (TGA Vol III and IV) soon as preparatory activities are drawing to a close. We recently got notice of an error in one of the early articles (TGA Vol II No 1 - Henry D. Gardiner and the barque Bostonian). Before that, I noticed some minor errors in the first print edition. For example, in TGA  Vol I No 1, I typed 1935 rather than 1933 (twice) while referencing Dr. Frank's Gardner Memorial book. Then, I noticed that the footnotes ought to have refreshed across major sections. This is corrected in the second print.

But, we had already run into some issues with Gardner's Beacon. In that case, we created Afterthoughts and modifications to handle those. For example, in GB Vol III, No 4, I had used something read on the web without verifying the thing (tsk). The implication that I read was that Damaris' first husband had been discovered. Well, it was not true, and I was too much of a newbie to know the difference. In any case, we later heard from an excited Shattuck descendant wanting to know more. So, I traced my steps which is crucial and found out that the website was gone. Ah.

Incidentally, this happens a lot on ancestry (pity those poor folks) and carries even into WikiTree. It's not the bloom off the rose, but it is tiring. How can we make it better? Well, be more careful. And, there are ways to do this. Too, one sees it in Wikipedia, especially when someone writes an erroneous page to begin with.

So, this from an entry in What's new (general one for TGS, for now).
It points to a post on Nantucket and the wonderful work of Eliza Starbuck Barney. The Nantucket site exults on their being true to Eliza's work. Yes. But, as I have seen all over, no one seems to have a way to present corrections. The proverbial tale is that a correction is in small print on page 15 in a 40 page paper. But, we need to do better; and, the TGS does have an interest in this.

So, we will keep with the afterthought approach with Gardner's Beacon. What to do with TheGardner Annals? We'll follow Dr. Frank, hence the title of this post. In his The Massachusetts Magazine, he had a section that was titled, usually, Comment and Criticism. See the TOC of Vol. VII (example from No 4). The sub-heading is "On books and other subjects" which is more broad than handling errata. However, any correction ought to be more than mere overwriting.

So, in the case of H.D. Gardiner, we will write an article on this. Turns out that this wife was a Thomas Gardner descendant, too. And, it involves movement from New England. Ah,  yes, the western migration.

So, there is a page on TGSoc.org dealing with Publications. It will point to this post, however we will be introducing changes to ThomasGardnerSociety.org that will include the facility to meet this requirement.

Remarks: Modified: 09/15/2018

09/15/2018 --

Wednesday, September 19, 2018

Pressing day

Now that we have Dr. Frank's pedigree in WikiTree, we can use it for articles.

This post is timely in that Giles Corey died on the 19th of September in 1692. Three days later, his wife (Martha Corey) was hanged with others. Two of these are ancestors of Dr. Frank (Wikipedia -- Samuel Wardwell and Mary Ayers Parker) -- (WikiTree -- Samuel Wardwell and Mary Ayers Parker) through his grandmother, Lucy Foster (Wilson) Gardner.

Now, the title? Giles was pressed for a couple of days before he succumbed. His friend, John Gardner son of Thomas and Margaret, was there.

The topic of 1692 events will come up for discussion in the near future. To facilitate this discussion, here are related posts for reference:
  • Great Salem Fire of 1914 (4 Jun 2014) -- Started on upper Boston Street and ran down to the shore. 
  • Andover ordeal (28 Apr 2014) -- While researching Samuel and Mary, we were following the Wilson line of Lucy. There were two generations that married and doubled down on the witch connections. Samuel's granddaughter lost twelve of fourteen of her children in their childhood. 
  • Essex recollections (3 Sep 2013) -- About the extended family and friends of Francis Dane who were impacted by the Salem madness.   
  • Meeting, again (10 Feb 2013) -- More background. 
  • Imagine a meeting (28 Oct 2012) -- Provides some background and builds a table of participant who were not victims and who are related to Dr. Frank. 
  • Gardner's Beacon, Vol. II, No. 5 (27 Oct 2012) -- John Goff, Salem antiquarian, wrote of the Witch House. The theme of this post was a continuation. 
  • 1692 theme, again (24 Oct 2012) -- Comments while getting Gardner's Beacon Vol. II, No. 5. ready for release. 
  • Salem's madness (19 Nov 2011) -- The English had been mad before. 
  • Gardner's Beacon, Vol. I, No. 4 (21 Oct 2011) -- Got into the theme early. First look at how the incident related to the Gardner family. 
  • Ruth Gardner (18 Sep 2011) -- Daughter of George Gardner, wife of John Hathorne. 
The next issue of Gardner's Beacon will go into this subject a little more. Namely, the commercially exploited look at the witches who were not while 150 graves were disturbed from which event we need to know how many were just stone moves with the remains moved without due notice. One thing to do would be to get a list of people, as best we can, who were buried on Gardner Hill. 

Remarks: Modified: 10/10/2018

10/10/2018 -- Added Essex recollections, and others. 

Saturday, September 15, 2018

Dr. Frank and WikiTree

Earlier, we mentioned that we had Dr. Frank's notes about his heritage from around the 1907 timeframe. The first exercise was to use his notes to check his Gardner pedigree against what Gardner Research had come up with starting from scratch almost 100 years later. The two views matched up. Of course, we had his books as reference. But, we have filled in the entire tree with the collateral families. In this day and age, we have a lot more information available since the www has forced things to an on-line mode. Too, communication is much faster (albeit, still errorful due to many reasons).

But, the question came up about public presentation since Gardner Research information is in a private, personalized environment, at the moment. Well, about the time that the marriage notice of Thomas and Margaret came up, we had gone to Wikitree to put in a link on the Thomas Gardner page. That was 2014. There had been a bit of discussion now and then, but, this year, the focus came back. So, this was accomplished: Margaret, anew. Essentially, we can declare that Thomas and Margaret were the parents of the children (notice that the first two nodes have the same information; the idea will be to merge these so that there are two spouses: Margaret and Demaris).

So, while that was going on, it seemed like a good time to try out WikiTree (what else? Not ancestry, for several reasons). If you look at the Profile of JMSwitlik (section on WikiTree), you will see the projects that are ongoing. Some of this was done by using ahnentafels from articles written in The Essex Genealogist or in The Gardner Annals to make profiles. In all cases, we got back to a Profile that already existed. In many cases, that Profile listed the known children. All we did was link in and bring up-to-date information related to a descendant.

But, Dr. Frank seemed to be a good subject (Frank Augustine Gardner (1861-1938)). The image is of his Profile and includes the first page of his ancestors graph ('Ancestors' button). To note is that we have 13 of 16 of his 2nd-great-grands. We have information about the others, however this needs checking before filling out the Profile.

With regard to the referenced projects, there are a lot more in process. However, with these, the focus was on Profiles in order to get familiar with the WikiTree ways (that is, get nodes into the tree). On each Profile, there is minimal source material; however, we have many sources and will be going back to fill in additional source material.

In doing Dr. Frank's biography (brief), we noted his sister, Lucie M. She picked up his work when Sidney Perley retired and published her work in The Massachusetts Magazine. Also, we noted that they were descendants of Nathaniel Eaton (as is Ann, TGS Secretary/Treasurer), and the link is there (pick Rebecca Knapp, wife of Simon Stacey Gardner). However, in doing his mother's line, we see that he is a descendant of Damaris Shattuck. So, he descends from both wives of Thomas. Lots more stuff coming.

For instance, taking Rebecca Knapp, we know her pedigree. For instance, she has Edward Woodman who was early into Newbury. This exercise tried to stay within things that have been proven by having been bumped up against a genealogist from one of the Heritage Society Community's groups that meet in D.C. each spring. That, folks, is about the best way to test these things. Our continuing issue? Even WikiTree has flim-flam. How to mark these would be something to figure out. In the meantime, note that the TGS will only put out things that have been scrutinized.

All and all, the work of the past few months has been a very good exercise. WikiTree has constraints in place that really help the genealogists. I like that. Too, they are Wiki in scope which is real nice (will discuss).

Remarks: Modified: 09/15/2018

09/15/2018 --

Wednesday, August 15, 2018

How close is close?

In the last post, we summarized several queries concerning the current state of Thomas (The remains of Thomas). What does state mean? Well, the norm would be for the remains to be in the ground under the stone. If they are not, usually there is some explanation.

The following is the start of some sleuthing that is needed to establish the 'state' of many others, not just Thomas Gardner (planter).

Modern (left), earlier (right)
Where is Thomas? III
1. In his earlier book, Dr. Frank (1907) wrote that court records indicated that Gardner Hill was around Main and Grove in Salem (lower red line, image). That means, too, the old burial ground. In other places, I have seen arguments that Harmony Grove touches where the Gardner plot was. Well, we will see. One opinion talked about a few yards of movement from the old plot to the corner where stones were thrown. Well, how few might few be? Of note, we have to consider the North River.

Then, Dr. Frank (1933) wrote that Samuel Pickering Gardner, ancestor of the John Lowell Gardners, had visited the place (1830s?) and noted that Samuel had written his observations which Dr. Frank got to read. The place was being used for tanning operations which caused some stones to have already been thrown aside, including that of Thomas, the planter. In this image, I rotated the old and the new views to almost agree. The markings map to a few landmarks. Notice that this has the hill on the other side of the river from Harmony Grove Cemetery. That is, looking up river, to the left. So, we do have to consider the river. Too, we have to look at Trask's property and burial site as it is germane to the topics to discuss.

Perley's view
Nutfield Genealogy
2. So, I have been poking around. We can start with Perley's map that shows Salem in 1700 based upon Sidney's study of the documents (Sidney Perley 1858-1928). Also, we are talking about Frank A. Gardner, MD (1861-1938). So, these two are cohorts. When Sidney got ill, Lucie, Dr. Frank's sister, picked up his work (Lucie following Sidney). Lucie and Dr. Frank published a whole lot of material in this regard in The Massachusetts Magazine.

The image comes from the Nutfield Genealogy post on Trask (see prior paragraph for link). Notice that Gardner's Hill is next to the Trask cemetery. That is, on the same side of the river. Note, too, the bulging of the river at that point.

3. Now, if we jump ahead to a view that is later, we can see Harmony Grove on the other side of the river which has been reconfigured. If you follow the history of the river, it has been encroached upon, and polluted, to support industry. And, tanning of leather for shoes turned out to be a huge deal (for a while). Samuel, above, saw the beginning of this. In the below image, I put a red circle about where Trask's (South) burying place was. Notice the difference in the shape of the river?

Trask, now and then

All of this is preliminary to a greater study that we will do. What happened to the bones of the 150 or so souls who were buried? It is a subject worth digging into (no pun). And, Gardners have to do this work with help.

4. Finally, let me show what a little sleuthing does. We need to do a lot more. I found a map at a Brit source that was with an article on glass making in the colonies, namely in Salem: Glass blower at Salem. The article is not very old; the map seems to be of the time (however, I do not know its provenance - if it was done in 1985, then that's worse than what Sidney (who was quite thorough) did a hundred years ago).

Salem, 1692? 
There is a lot more to learn. However, we intend to push to get this settled in the sense of the most reasonable answer that we can do given what we can gather as data. There are 150 souls, perhaps, looking from some type of recognition.

We ought to, as well, get a list of the names of those buried at Gardner's Hills.

Remarks: Modified: 08/17/2018

08/16/2018 -- Added a virtual cemetery to findagrave: Gardner's Hill. With this, we can have people put memorials for those who were known to have been buried at Gardner's Hill and, at the same time, reference where they or their stones were moved. MHC Report: some hills approached 200 feet.

08/17/2018 -- Gardner's Hill on findagrave is now Gardner's Hill Burial Ground (Defunct). It points to Harmony Grove Cemetery with a few words. Also, the rule is there will be no memorials connected to this. So, we'll need to figure out another method to have a virtual view of who was buried there. For starters, we can start with a page here on this blog and improve as we go. Gardner's Hill was in the same family through seven generations. It was sold at the eighth generation. We'll be writing more about this. However, it's a gain, as when one looks at cemeteries in Salem, MA, they will see Gardner's Hill.

Sunday, August 12, 2018

The remains of Thomas

Yesterday, finally, I learned the real state of the remains of Thomas. Or, let's say, we can use the observation of Samuel Pickering Gardner to establish some notion prior to the road work of the 1840s. Then, what might have happened post that bears some attention. To me, the least that we can do is build some type of 'virtual' view of Gardner Hill with its grave sites. To that, then, can be attached the large set of data points that will accrue to analysis.

For starters, we need to see overlays of old and new maps so that we can point out what might have happened over the period of the first raking off of the gravestones until now. Essentially, it is unclear how many gravestone were moved, whose bodies may have been re-interned, or just how many graves were left to be scraped by the road work or to be covered over by the progress of building. More research is to be done. Dr. Frank talked to George Augustus Gardner about, and read the, notes that George had that had been written by Samuel Pickering Gardner who had visited Gardner's Burial Ground sometime prior to the period of the road work and reported his observations.

You see, and I verified this yesterday, lots of references on-line mention words like 'graves moved' or 're-interned' or any other of the number of things that a civilized society does to its cemeteries (from my perspective which can be explained, as needed). On the other hand, after yesterday, I thought of the Salem Fire (retribution - after all, we're talking Salem) which came out of an industrial area related to shoes. The first desecration of the grave sites relate to the push for commerce in that industry. As such, by the time the roadwork was done in the 1840s, graves had already been disturbed with stones scattered about. 

Dr. Frank did see Samuel's notes and made a brief comment (see pages 17 and 18 of Gardner Memorial - 1933). That is a good place to start. In the meantime, here is a history of posts of the Thomas Gardner Society, Inc. devoted to the subject. 
  • Where is Thomas? - (Oct, 2010) On a visit to Harmony Grove, we got familiar with the layout and found the graves of Ann's Gardner ancestors. Dr. Frank is buried in the same plot as her grandfather and great-grandfather. Also, we saw the area where people are directed. It didn't make sense. Later I called and heard 'graves were moved' (but there was no clear indication where Thomas' remains were). 
  • Where is Thomas? II  - (May, 2011) Not hearing from anyone any story that made sense, I continued to search. Notice that there is an aerial view of the area where the stones were, supposedly. I did not see that myself. Too, in 2015, I noticed that Dr. Frank, in the 1933 book, does not mention 'move.'
  • Where is Thomas? III - (Aug, 2015) Motivated by a Wikipedia edit, I did further looking. One addition was a map by Perley put next to a modern aerial view where landmarks can be identified. I noted that the 'burial issue' was open and needs to be resolved. In my mind, that involved, mainly, finding where bones may have been thrown in Harmony Grove and identifying this. 
But, now I see that it is going to be more involved. Yes, bones were cast to the wind, if you would. There are many things that could be done, so expect that we will continue this discussion. Today's purpose was merely to set the record straight.

We do not know the status of the remains of a whole lot of people. Too, stones were thrown about. Well, the argument is that they broke. Okay. At least, Seeth was given some notice. Also, Buffum is noted as having the earliest stone over grounds that do not contain his remains. 

Remarks: Modified: 08/28/2018

08/28/2018 -- After some research, the fact that the stones were moved arose. So, we added a page for this cemetery, now defunct, on findagrave. Also, we can plan several tasks related to important issues, such as who was buried there, what stones stand, how many were broken, etc. As well, we can model the area as of 1640s, to get an idea of the size.

Tuesday, August 7, 2018

Margaret, anew

From the beginning, we have used Thomas and Margaret, following Dr. Frank. An example is looking at the 'great house' that John Endicott had brought over to Salem from Cape Ann: Thomas' house. About the same time, Gardner's Beacon, Vol I, No. 3, looked at Margaret, in particular, and I used "Margaret's house" in terms of that structure.

We were newbies, back then, but I had noticed that some later genealogist actually agreed with Dr. Frank, too. However, the Great Migration Begins of R.C. Anderson suggested another wife who was the mother of the children. I got several emails pointing that out to me. So, I dug in and pulled out those things being referenced. Someone has to do this now and then, as many citations follow someone else (many times, without doing their own verification).

Gardner Research will go back to first principles, if you would.
  • My first response (Sep 2012) - About Margaret - as the next bullet shows, the argument mentioned a 1639 entry in the church record. But, to me, it was Margaret; Thomas didn't align himself until 1637. Their kids were growing up, so they had to smooth the way.
  • My second response (Nov 2012) - How many wives? This post puts TAG side-by-side with the Great Migration material. The conclusion was that the NEHGS was looking at 1000s of people. The Gardners would dig into one or two, with regard to this issue. And, in the meantime, we would honor good old Dr. Frank. 
Now, in 2014, John Cook came across the marriage record of Thomas and Margaret at which point we put out the blog post. Too, I went to WikiTree as there was a profile for these two (Thomas Gardner) or should I say three? As, 'unknown' was there. At that time, I did a few things and went on as I was writing several articles (The Essex Genealogist) which have given us ahnentafels for Dr. Frank (his father's side, I now have his hand-written lineage on his mother's side which I'll key in) which includes Benjamin Brown Gardner and Lucy Foster Wilson. We're first cousins, in that sense. 

Too, I got involved in getting further informed about England and that whole environment. Of late, I got back to looking at Sherborne, for several reasons (son, John; Folger; Dr. Frank, and others). Or, I ought to say Dorset. King John loved his Corfe Castle. Queen Elizabeth is shown in a painting being carried by noblemen at Sherborne Castle (the painting is there). 

I also stopped by WikiTree to see what was happening. Well, a query had been made in 2016 as to whether the kids ought to be taken from Margaret's profile and moved to that of the unknown. So, I weighed in and mentioned the marriage record from 2014. And, I mentioned the arguments for this: Sherborne, Dorset. I mentioned the Peirce family (for more than Charles Sanders Peirce) as many families have been poking around. We are trying to gather all of this stuff. Like that of the Paine sisters. This will all be documented, and we'll put a link to the material (shortly).

As well, we need to look at references to Thomas and Margaret. One known first reference is 1827 by Felt, working in Salem, who talked to a lot of people. We may find more. Too, records are being scanned in all of the time, transcribed, and indexed. So, that will help.

Margaret Friar, baptism
After seeing the discussions, I went back to look at my records and found that John Cook had sent to me a baptism record for Margaret (see image), the marriage record of her parents (close enough in time to be her parents), and the will of Margaret's father which mentions her plus a few other things. However, her father died in 1610 so the will mentions Margaret Friar not Gardner. But, we also have birth/baptism records for the first three kids with the names matching. As an aside, we will be looking further at (introducing here) Walter Friar and Grace Mullins of Sherborne. 

About WikiTree. I found out that the genealogists hang out there. Too, they are trying to stay true to the NEHGS work plus newer stuff, as the entry on Thomas dates from the 1980s. So, the Gardner Research work is considered to be after that. 

Essentially, there was an agreement that this is the Margaret and Thomas. But, there are lots of other questions to look at. I set a time frame of five years or sooner as that would match up with the 400th of the 1623 entry. A major researcher noted that first year over 100 years ago. That is, a boat arrived in 1623 with a crew that overwintered; another came in 1624. Margaret was on the later one, according to Dr. Frank. 

Still things to settle. 

But, the purpose for this post? Well, it has been decided to merge unknown and Margaret together. So, the profile for Thomas will have Margaret and Damaris as his wives.

Again, everyone. Use, please, Thomas and Margaret without worrying about being dumped on. 

That is a first step. One of many to come. So, please stay tuned. 

Remarks: Modified: 09/23/2018

09/23/2018 --  Recently, the profile changed to having only two wives. The profile is managed by the Puritan Great Migration Project which is sponsored by NEGHS. 

Sunday, July 22, 2018

Another western movement

Since an earlier post (and several others) mentioned western movement, we need to pause and look at the environment in the 1830s. Jedediah Strong Smith went west as a young man from New England (of course, our main focus) a little earlier. As such, he was an early explorer and lived the life of a mountain man. Before Jedediah went west, we had the conflict with England. One person to study further will be Hector St. John who wandered, as a foreign visitor, at that time and went home to write about it.

Turns out that there were others of such capability. Namely, the natives already on the continent. This post looks at events in the south, which was populated from England. However, many from New England went south, too. We will be looking at that (one of many examples). Then, some went west from the south.

A lot of the west has strong New England influence. Related posts: Gardner Junction, Final Migration, Gardner CO.

Today, we want to present the words of a native leader. The words come from the address of George W. Harkins to the American People dealing with removal of the natives (related legalese).
  • It is with considerable diffidence that I attempt to address the American people, knowing and feeling sensibly my incompetency; and believing that your highly and well improved minds would not be well entertained by the address of a Choctaw. But having determined to emigrate west of the Mississippi river this fall, I have thought proper in bidding you farewell to make a few remarks expressive of my views, and the feelings that actuate me on the subject of our removal.... We as Choctaws rather chose to suffer and be free, than live under the degrading influence of laws, which our voice could not be heard in their formation.
Western movement, example
Popularly, people talk of the Trail of Tears. But, it deals with much more than that. Notice his words about wanting to be free of degrading laws. Does that not sound American?

---

Our theme, again: Culture, History, Technology (of which are the gene related things). In our broad sweeps, we will be sure to gather information about interaction with the natives. Thomas had peaceful relations, as did Richard and John in their leadership roles on Nantucket. But, we know issues are not simple. Yet, the stories will be told, especially given the web. We can have a more in-depth coverage from time to time.

Remarks: Modified: 07/22/2018

07/22/2018 --  

Tuesday, July 17, 2018

Whole views

People have been interested in genealogy for a long time, to wit, the Bible (from 2013, Endless genealogies, quoting Timothy). But one bogs down quickly with more than the mere brick wall. What were these people up to? What were their times like?

Oxford view
Having just gone through Dr. Frank's Massachusetts Magazine (2018, all issues) from cover to cover, I have acquired a little more understanding of one-hundred years ago, more or less. The last post (on Jedediah Smith - true mountain, and desert, man) looked at activities regarding western expansion which was post the jaunt of Lewis & Clark. Also, that post brought up the notion of a larger focus, namely: culture, history, technology (which includes genetics/genealogy). We will be discussing this, however a quote from an Oxford book of 1850, gives the proper view.

A review of posts in this blog will show many devoted to issues of Whence (2014) and What we know (2012 - definitely needs to be updated). Since the start, we have had several of these types of posts on a subject that will still need some attention. One approach will be to gather what has been found so far so as to evaluate the information and sources. Nothing new there. It is work, but fun. There is a lot of material on the web regarding Thomas and Margaret and variations thereof. For instance, did Thomas have a sister named Rachel? In that case, I looked at this and tried to establish sources (2015, Rachel (Nobel) Gardner).

One post looked at the period around the arrival, briefly (2013, Plus or minus the arrival - I call this the cigarette posts as the time view of the reigns look like ascending smoke). That image shows the long reign of Elizabeth I. Her time overlapped the life of Thomas' father and his birth. Recently, I have started to dig deeper. Frankly, I was motivated by seeing an article on Elizabeth and the Spanish armada incident. In other publications, I read of the various players and places. But, I also noticed Dorset (2015, Sherborne) which is where son John said that they had come from. That lead to a bunch of reading, especially to get familiar with the counties involved, Dorset and the surrounding, such as Somerset, Devon, Wiltshire, and Hampshire.

But, too, I got a better appreciation for the geography of the War of Roses (2013, Origins - Motivations). I do not like how Game of Thrones has warped  the story (only read 2 1/2 books - put it down, never watched any of the Hollywood renditions). But, then, I learned today that Shakespeare is considered a propagandists for the Tudors by historians. Nothing new, as the saying goes.

Dorset countryside
Before ending, that is Alfred the Great's territory. Of course, the Romans were there, earlier. There was a Sherborne Castle built in the time of William the Conqueror. I think Edward II had some type of confab there. It decayed and was destroyed during the Civil War. Oh yes, the next county has Stonehenge.

Let's stop with a photo out of Dorset.

---

We expect to move this blog to be under TGSoc.org. Once we get the new blog set up, volunteers who want to help to move things over would be gladly acknowledged.

Remarks: Modified: 09/30/2018

07/17/2018 -- As we look at things related to western expansion, we need to remember the ones who were here prior to that event. 

09/30/2018 -- Need to mention Corfe Castle that was in the area. King John used it to starve Maude and her son (Maude de Braose). 

Tuesday, July 10, 2018

Jedediah Strong Smith

We commented on the wonderful job that is being done for the Mayflower events and mentioned the work being done by the NEHGS. That will be something to watch. Of late, after reading of Judge Thompson spending time out west, I have been paying attention to events of the past 200 years. As, we have the opportunity to celebrate those while the 400th stream of fetes rages for several decades.

The Judge's sojourn to the left coast and back, plus Col. Higginson's travels out to the wild west, are examples from a long period of history leading to now. I was just digging yesterday into the 'Sooner' events that were associated with the 1893 Land Rush where the Cherokee Territory was parceled out to a greedy bunch of people. There are tales to tell; fortunately, the www allows people to publish what they know. The usual caveats are in order, albeit that the Thomas Gardner Society would like to be involved with efforts a providing a 'clean, safe' web source.

You see, from the research mode, there are many things to discuss. However, a triad of culture, history, and genetics/genealogy rises to fore, in our opinion. These will be discussed further, as we go along. Culture is a human trait of long-standing interest. So, in a sense, memes trump genes? Well, lots to look at, however history does have a huge role. Actually, it deals with people and their dealings. People, of course, are the major players, but each generation comes and goes. We have to look at the broader scope of things. Humans have many cultures, most of which are age-old.

Both Thompson and Higginson were late, comparatively, to the subject guy. They were around during the pre-Civil War times. And, both were heavily New England in pedigree. One thing to remember is that after the Revolution, we had lots of people coming here. In fact, D.A.R. has many members whose patriot ancestors came sometime in the 18th century prior to the uproar. But, we also had the Spanish here for a few centuries by that time. And, people came from all over.

Just like now. And, given some of the discussions that I see, we really need educational thrusts related to the hidden history of the U.S. So, let's go back a few decades prior to these two guys. One of the early explorers, a mountain man, was out west in the 1820s. He started in St. Louis working in the fur trade business. Then, he went west and covered a whole lot of territory. He took notes, drew maps, and even wrote letters. And, he has a New England pedigree which needs to be researched further. I looked at some reports and provide a brief list of families: Smith, Strong, Partridge, Mather, Ingersoll, Langley, Adams, Kilborne, Foote, Eddy. Like many, he has oodles of cousins.

Jedediah did not have descendants, but his siblings did.

---

Now, let's switch to an example society that is doing very good work. In 1957, a group in California decided to found a group to research this guy and others like him and more. This is their website.


It's partly based in Berkeley (CA). They use WordPress nicely. But, their research work is real nice. There is some discussion, below. But, they have a Rendevouz that is planned and allows people to walk in Jedediah's steps, if you would. And, he covered a whole lot of western states, as an early traveler. I will look at one, below, a little.  

Being brief, just like the NEHGS helps lead the way, the JSS shines, too. Jedediah Smith was born in 1799, so he's a post-Revolution baby. His parents were in New York. They both have New England pedigree. By 1822, he was in St. Louis. Mind you, this was before the trails kicked in (see Gardner, KS at the split). After that, he went many places. He helped establish the Oregon Trail's route.

As we look at the filling in of the middle of the U.S., we can look at what was going on in New England. Like we know of Higginson, that he was one of the secret supporters of John Brown. By that time, there was regular publishing in eastern papers of articles sent from the west. Jedediah was before any of that.

His death was in 1831, in Kansas. There is a river that runs out of New Mexico into Colorado and then wanders east until it meets with the Arkansas River that comes out of Colorado, too. He was killed while drinking water from the Cimarron River during a parched time. His body was never found, however reports of this death traveled back quickly. In that area, they were laying out the Santa Fe trail

Area where Jedediah was killed, 1831
---

It might be of interest to mention, now, that Jedediah and his crew were the first U.S. citizens to cross the Mojave Desert. And, this was in the summer.

After being detained and questioned by the New Spain Governor, Jedediah went north.

Jedediah maps out the Interstates
I had to include this map, which came from the JSS website. For those who may be familiar with the area, the long south to north line is, essentially, today's I5. Then, in the lower area, we see what is now I15. And that northern line is I80 which goes across the whole continent ending up in New York City.

There are similar maps of other areas created by researchers who have been studying Jedediah and his times.

---

As an aside, the JSS still uses checks for their membership payment and contributions. They have a nice newsletter, too, and published papers.

---

Jedediah was forgotten for a long while. One article is noted as having been written in 1922 by a grand-nephew who lived in Kansas not far from where Jedediah was slain. But, once the JSS was formed, it has been in action to get Jedediah recognized.

---

We see a similar role with regard to Thomas Gardner and the Cape Ann crew, especially with regard to the Old Planters Society. That is, do not let the world forget early New England. Lots of research has been done the past 100 years or so. Too, there is a huge stack of pending research. Using the www for coordination goes along with its purpose and facilities. 

Remarks: Modified: 09/30/2018

07/17/2018 -- Continuation of the theme: culture | history | technology.

Wednesday, June 27, 2018

Sources for TGA, Vol IV, No 1

Earlier, we discussed, briefly, the sources for a recent issue of Gardner's Beacon, namely Vol VIII, No 1 that published in early June. We will do something similar for The Gardner Annals for which we just published Vol IV, No 1. 

See What's new for regular postings: 
  • 06/18/2018 -- The Gardner AnnalsVolume IV, Number 1,  published. Contents: The Massachusetts Magazine,  updating an article in the Essex Genealogist, Gardner and the Tudors, and Pending Research: Pseudo-wall, The Atlantic, Nathaniel Eaton. 
We will reconfigure our Research and Annals section, hopefully with a common reference strategy that will include a bibliography.

----

This recent issue covered several topics including finishing up scanning the articles of The Massachusetts Magazine and presenting the Table of Contents for each issue. In this review, we ran across lots of characters who will be looked at more closely as we did take the time to research both older and newer material.

For instance, we have a lot of information about Judge Thompson. It was a year ago when we first started to read about him. And, several items have come out of his Reminisces, such as his experiences with Henry Plummer who was hanged by the vigilantes in Montana.   

The following are some additional links which will be updated as we run into material. 
---

We will be adding other material, such as that associated with F. B. Sanborn, and more.

---

Finally, as we get the print of TGA Vols III and IV ready, we are looking at the next issue. As such, our focus will be of three things that pertain to the past, present and future. That is, the 400 years of history provide a rich source for continuing analysis and subsequent improvement.

Those three topics are culture, history and genealogy. The American experiment is without doubt known across the globe and offers a never-ending platform that is as broad as one might expect, namely human culture. Then, history deals with time and events relating to the culture where we have various actors by generation.

Given the upcoming even of the 4th of July, we might take Rev. John Wise as an example who was the 'inspiration' for the Declaration of Independence according to President Coolidge. He pre-dated Jefferson's efforts by decades. Rev. John's milieu was Ipswich, Massachusetts. He was the son of a butcher and a graduate of Harvard. We will be writing about him, again.

Remarks: Modified: 09/30/2018

09/22/2018 -- We are about ready to print TGA Vol III and IV with the remaining issues of Gardner's Beacon. We will do this in both black and white and color. Table of Contents for TGA Vol. III is shown in the image. Last fall, we printed TGA Vol I and II

09/30/2018 -- The print version is at the printers. 


Saturday, June 16, 2018

Magazine: American museum

As we complete TGA Vol. IV, No. 1, we look at how to report on all of the references that Gardner Research has used. We have started a bibliography but need a better way to discuss research issues. To date, we have also used blog posts.

This post deals with two references to magazines that get some attention in the coming issue of the TGA. Last year, as we were reviewing the first five volumes of the Massachusetts Magazine (Wikipedia), we looked at the other attempts at publishing about that time, for several reasons. For one, they are a point-in-time capture of the state of things related to U.S. history. We use an example out of Dr. Frank's periodical experience, below. But, Hector St. John is an example of someone being here and then writing in Europe. He needs as much attention as Lafayette. The French loved his revolutionary-war era tales.

We can put these types of things into a timeline related to the U.S., something like this: 1770 to 1840, 1840 to 1890, 1890 to 1940. The middle period would include a lot, such as the Southern Literary Messenger. For one thing, printing technology improves. Also, we have The Atlantic which still publishes having started in 1857; imagine the modern approach compared to one hundred and sixty years ago.

Dr. Frank's MM would be in the last period. We will be able to present the entire TOC with the coming print of TGA volumes III and IV. We will post when the copies are ready.

But, going back to the first period (1770 to 1840), we can look at part of one volume of The Massachusetts Magazine which is on-line: Massachusetts Magazine or Monthly museum. This volume is from 1794 for six months. It started printing in 1789 out of Boston. The Library Journal (Volume 14) for 1889 mentions that this periodical published until 1796.

In that same time period, we had the American museum that started out of Philadelphia in 1787. The publisher was Mathew Carey (biography). This is an example issue: The American Museum or Repository of Ancient and Modern Fugitive Pieces ... It is huge involving a lot of work. And, Carey had a large subscription list, unfortunately, many of which were free (the list is categorized by State - Massachusetts is first). So, Carey had to stop publishing after five years.

From the beginning, there was print activity everywhere in the U.S. So, we will see lots of examples in those defined periods. Without the modern shipping methods, most of these efforts stayed local. However, the American Museum had a nationwide (at the time) audience. The Southern Literary Messenger, with Poe as editor, started in the first of the groupings but continued well into the second. As such (with other examples), it demonstrated views held by some. Seeing these in the original context and voice helps understand issues.

Again, the thematic thrust is the 400 years that went into the making of the U.S. as it is now. And, freedom of press is a crucial point. Too, juxtaposing the turmoils, including operational aspects, of those three periods with today's whizzbang methods might just provide some needed insight.

---

Now, Frank's magazine was in the last period, but here is an example of content related to the second. Namely, F. M. Thompson wrote of his western experience starting with his banking work in several mid-western states. This is worth looking at more closely due to his detailed report. Fortunately, F.M. was consistent in that. Montana, in 2004, picked up his articles from The Massachusetts Magazine and published them (it is noted that the material came directly from Dr. Frank's periodical). The title of the book is Tenderfoot in Montana (via Google). K.N. Owens did the editing and included some useful maps in the beginning of his introduction. We will look at that further.

Some of the events that F.M. wrote about are in Wikipedia, referencing other material. However, we will get his name back in the scope of things. He helped design the Seal of the State. Also, he ran a mercantile business in a mining town of about 10,000. Bannack is now a ghost town. It is protected; there is some shindig there yearly. F.M. left to return to Massachusetts where his future bride was waiting. F.M. is quite graphic about the life in the wilds of those times. So, his writing is a gem. The early part about banking is apropos, still, to discussions that seem to reawaken every generation.

In a chapter on vigilantes, F.M. describes the crime, the arguments of frontier justice, and that several men were hanged. In Massachusetts, F. M. was a judge. We will look further into that. 

Remarks: Modified: 06/17/2018

06/17/2018 -- In looking at the Wikipedia page on Henry Plummer, hanged by the vigilantes, there is no reference to his marriage which F.M. noted (later a judge in Massachusetts). There was no reference to F.M., at all, in the write (yes, some fiction is referenced - sign of the times), so we need to correct that oversight.

Tuesday, June 12, 2018

Early America

Our scope, of course, goes back to the beginning. As I finish up TGA Vol. IV, No. 1, various subjects related to the early times come up due to the review of all articles in The Massachusetts Magazine. At the bottom of this post is the TOC for the upcoming issue.

We have written about F. B. Sanborn (What is an American?). In TMM, Vol. IX, No. 2, pg 163, F. B. wrote about Hector St. John (namesake of St. John's, VT). Hector was here for a while, got caught in the Revolution, was captured by the Brits, taken back to England, and then got back to his folks in France. There, he wrote retrospectives of what he saw. They were immensely popular due to his first hand experience. Of note is that he experienced the time of turmoil and that he had a good opinion of the U.S. (which was to be). People on the continent were interested in what was going on. A little later, the French had their own revolution.

There have been some interesting looks at Hector and kindred souls. This is an example of a few works concerning Hector.
  • Hector's first work: Letters from an American farmer
  • Describing Early America - compilation by Pamela Regis. Includes an essay by Hector. 
  • Crevecoeur's Eighteenth-Century Travels in Pennyslvania & New York, translated/edited by Percy G. Adams. The following is the Table of Contents. 
I.     A trip up the Hudson
II.    Colonel Woodhull of Schunnemunk Valley
III.   A tour of the chief ironworks of New York
IV.   In the backwoods of Pennsylvania -
              the schoolteacher from Connecticut - a
                 Northumberland county pioneer
V.     In the backwoods of Pennsylvania -
               at the home of a Polish refugee in Luzerne County
VI.    Lost on a bee hunt in Bedford County
VII.   The bachelor farmer of Cherry Valley
VIII.  The Indian Council at Onondaga -
                the arrival
IX.     The Indian Council at Onondaga -
                 the great debate between Kesketomah and Koohassen
X.      A winter among the Mohawks, or, The story of Catta-Wassy
XI.     Niagara in Winter
XII.    Agouehghon, the Coohassa-Onas of Niagara
XIII.   Two Indian tales
XIV.    Wabemat's Reward, or, Why the first beaver was made
XV.     The use made of salt in American, and, The mountain pasture lands
All of these books are via Google books, in a preview mode that does not show all pages.

TOC for TGA Vol IV, No 1.

Remarks: Modified: 06/12/2018

06/12/2018 --

Wednesday, June 6, 2018

Pageant of Salem

Earlier, when we recognized the support of Lucie M. Gardner for The Massachusetts Magazine, we put in the image that was from 100 years ago.  Lucie continued Sidney Perley's work, reported on activities by groups (such as The Old Planters Society). She is also listed as an editor.

---

The recent issue of Gardner's Beacon, Vol. VIII, No. 1., mentions the upcoming 400th celebrations. Cape Ann, Essex Co., and Salem have several years to party, from 2023 to 2030. Following is about the 300th. VP Charles Dawes was in Salem for the ceremony. Dr. Frank was there, as were a whole lot of folk.

---

On June 13th and 14 and 16th and 17th of 1913, there was a Pageant presented by locals. Dr. Frank participated. He and his wife were the Roger Conants. Thomas and Margaret Gardner were played by Waldo D. Gardner and his sister. Lucie M. Gardner played the wife of William Jeffrey. Other families portrayed were Balch, Gray, Norman, Palfrey, and Allen.

The Pageant was presented by the management of the "The House of the Seven Gables Settlement Association" and was published (available via Google/books). The Pageant was "arrange and directed by Margaret Maclaren Eager" with Sidney Perley as consultant. There were many participants and supporters (see Pg 5). The following provides the structure of the Pageant.

  • Part I, Prelude (Naumkeag)
  • Episode 1 (a) The Indians at Naumkeag
  • Episode 1 (b) The Indians welcome the advent of the English, Roger Conant and Followers
  • Episode 2 Arrival of the ship "Abigail" with Governor Endicott and fifty English settlers, 1628
  • Episode 3 The forming of the First Church
  • Episode 4 (a) Roger Williams banished by the government
  • Episode 4 (b) The persecution of the Quakers
  • Episode 5 Salem deluded by witchcraft. Witchcraft unveiled and driven out. 
  • Part II, Episode 1 The coming of Governor Gage to hold Court at Salem, 1774
  • Episode 2 The ball given in honor of Governor Gage
  • Episode 3 The forming of the First Provincial Congress
  • Episode 4 (a) Leslie's retreat
  • Episode 4 (b) The Call to Arms
  • Part III, Commercial Days
  • Part IV, Nineteenth Century Days
  • Episode 1 The Salem of romance. Nathaniel Hawthorne
  • Episode 2 The close of the Civil War. Entrance of the Grand Army of the Republic.
  • Finale 
The Pageant material names all of those who acted. The Finale includes various lists of prominent persons of Salem by category. The image shows a few of the participants.


Remarks: Modified: 06/06/2018

06/06/2018 -- Need to prepare for 2023/4. Some, of literary inclinations, have looked back 200 years: American Jeremiad. But, we need to go back to the Cape Ann times and before.


Sources for GB, Vol VIII, No 1

In the early issues, we included a list of Sources (love this page as it has the 2nd generation buttons which go back to the transition from OfficeLive (2010 start) of MS to HTML on Linux (2012). The issues related to configuration - technical and otherwise - are open - have not seen a real good solution - not Ancestry, thank you - go with Wordpress or otherwise - open to discussion). The last volume that we did in Sources was IV. 

Some of the posts for the issue of Gardner's Beacon had a short source list of References (example - Gardner's Beacon, Vol 2, No 5). 

Sources for GB, Vol VIII, No 1
For the future:
Others will be added. At some point, Sources will reestablish the proper mode with a Bibliography.

Remarks: Modified: 07/13/2018

06/27/2018 -- Looking at a common source strategy for GB and TGA. 

07/13/2018 -- Added to the American Jeremiad bullet and inserted the H.B. Adams material, courtesy of Johns Hopkins (and Berkeley's library). 


Tuesday, June 5, 2018

Gardner's Beacon, Vol VIII, No 1

This issue of Gardner's Beacon briefly looks two major events of the past four hundred years. We are just past Memorial Day with the 4th of July coming up. The respective wars were one hundred and fifty and two hundred and forty years ago. Given that Memorial Day has broadened in scope, one might expect it to become a major holiday celebrating more than the start of the summer months. It is natural that Thanksgiving will continue to be of interest.

But, we are facing the start of a long line of celebrations. A century ago, people honored the 300th: Pageant of Salem (1913). Charles Dawes was there in 1926.

The 400th of the Mayflower events is coming up in 2020; already activities have started to commemorate the lives of those who came over, prior to their trip west. Cape Ann will be recognized in 2023 and 2024. However, there were several other occurrences that will lead to celebration: Roger's arrival (1625), then John's entry (1627/8), and Rev. Higginson (1629). It was the last who was the ancestor of Col. Thomas Higginson who is known for his work with The Massachusetts Magazine and the Old Planters Society, among other things.

When 2030 comes around (Great Migration), there will be events at many locations for many years (Timeline of settlements).

---

The print of The Gardner Annals, Vols III and IV, is in final preparation. We will report on the status.

Included with the TGA volumes will be Gardner's Beacon issues from Vols IV through VII. The issue will cover the remaining volumes of The Massachusetts Magazine, report on a change made via an article in The Essex Genealogist, and present further material from David T. Gardner. Too, we will look at a few of the Gardner Research projects.

---

See Vol. VIII, No. 1 of Gardner's Beacon for a review of research to date. Sources.

Remarks: Modified: 06/06/2018

06/06/2018 --

Sunday, June 3, 2018

What is the American?

Back in December, I was reading a book review and noticed reference to 'martial law' being imposed in Virginia. The punishment was quite extreme, however we know that even the Puritans up north were well capable of meting out harsh treatment.

Recall that Virginia is New England (south) and is very much of interest. One might argue about different world views, however the same little island was the source for these people. Yes, we are talking the same people. And, they had the first Thanksgiving down there.

Too, there are lots of other parallels that we can look at. Northern families went south and west. The big conflict (still apropos, today) caught up many families and ought to be in our sight.

So, we have central themes to explore. As I have been reading The Massachusetts Magazine (have been through most of the issues - we will cover all articles and republish through time), themes/memes related to other issues came forth.

For instance, a 2011 book (Foster, Thomas A: New Men: Manliness in early America) quoted J.Hector St. John De Crevecoeur (who was written about by F.B. Sanborn):
  • What then, is the American, this new man? He is an American, who, leaving behind him all his ancient prejudices and manners, receives new ones from the new mode of life he has embraced.
Foster's book looks at both Virginia and the north. The former was military in scope from the beginning. We know of the Mayflower passenger and crew. Cape Ann was commercial. But, this is a topic that ought to, and will, get more attention.

BTW, Hector came over here as a young man, with introductions, and went to various locales during the time of the conflict with England. His essays are very much of interest.

----
An example of an American would be F. B. Sanborn. He was remembered in The Massachusetts Magazine, Volume X, No. 4.



---

There was never 'martial law' in the north that I have found. Rather, the north had the notion of liberty. In 1868, John Ward Dean published A Memoir of the Rev. Nathaniel Ward, A.M. He dedicated the book to Samuel Gardner Drake. Who was Nathaniel (besides a brother of an ancestor)? He wrote (compiled) The Body of Liberties (1641). This is a 'bill of rights' over 100 years prior to the Philly's crowd prancing around.

---

In regard to the Memoir, who was John and Samuel? Samuel Gardner Drake was an antiquarian in Boston. Also, Samuel was one of the founders of the NEHGS. His parents were Simeon Drake and Love Muchamore Tuck. Where did Gardner come from? Love's brother, Samuel Jones Tuck (of Boston), married Judith Gardner (of Nantucket) daughter of Uriah Gardner (b 1716) and Judith Bunker (d 1789). So, Judith was a descendant of Thomas and Margaret.

John was of Maine (History of the Dudley family, Librarian of the New England Genealogical Library) and was a member of the NEHGS. John has an extensive list of books on-line (UPenn). John is a descendant of Nathaniel Ward through a granddaughter, Mary, who married Benjamin Woodbridge. Mary was daughter of son, John (1609-1693).

---

This post was introductory covering a lot of territory. Before ending, here are a few items related to Samuel's namesakes. His first name came from his mother's brother. His middle name came from his uncle's wife.

Samuel's uncle: Samuel Jones Tuck - findagrave (we like this effort and try to support it); Tuck book, Love #100, Samuel #99.

Samuel's aunt: Judith Gardner's tree (Manning - we know, rootsweb had a major outage - months - so, how to correct for that?), notice major Nantucket, and Quaker, families 

I will experiment with this type of thing that would be a footnote for an ahnentafel (NEHGR reference - 2016). Over the past few years, I have collected thousands of these for the tree (with auxillary families) that I built by hand. Not only do they need to be organized to support other research, we need to check consistency twixt these things through time. Yes, lots of work.

Remarks: Modified: 06/06/2018

06/04/2018 -- Add in the remembrance of F.B. that was in TMM, Vol. X, No. 4.

06/06/2018 -- Need to prepare for 2023/4. Some, of literary inclinations, have looked back 200 years: American Jeremiad. But, we need to go back to the Cape Ann times and before.