Wednesday, May 18, 2016

The almost forgotten

Prior to (northern) New England and its history, we had the southern New England. Of late, I have had the opportunity to look further at that era and area. Not only did some come up north from Virginia, many New Englanders went south.  This movement started early. Below are a few tidbits that have special interest as they show parallels. 
    -- As there was western movement early in Massachusetts, so too was there a western push down south. In Massachusetts, we can use the example of Ipswich Canada which was an effort sponsored by people in Ipswich. The ancestors of Susan Graves supported the effort. The first husband (Joshua Johnson) of her great-grandmother (Elizabeth Pushee) was killed. They had married in Groton. Elizabeth moved back to Ipswich proper.

    In Virginia, we know about Jamestown (capital of Virginia Company) being founded in 1607. There was an effort to move west in order to claim land. Because travel is facilitated by roads, there were early efforts to clear paths just as there were in early Massachusetts. Dr. Frank writes of the work of Thomas and his sons doing surveying for this effort. In Virginia, one road was nicknamed "Three Notch'd Road." It ran from Richmond to the Shenandoah Valley by 1730.

    By the early-1700s, there was regular correspondence between western counties and Williamsburg (capital of Virginia Colony). And, this facilitated expansion. James Madison's family moved out west in the 1730s. Monticello dates from the 1760s. 
    -- New England in the north has its Paul Revere. New England in the south had two (Francis and Jack). Francis Salvador rode 30 miles in South Carolina in 1775. He died in the ensuing battle but has not been forgotten (see

    Jack Jouett did his ride of 40 miles in Virginia in 1781. Part of his ride was along the Three Notch'd Road. Lafayette, himself, was familiar with that road. We think of the Marquis as being up in the north; but, he did, later on, spend time in Virginia. 

Just as the northern New England has its sources for historic and genealogical research, so, too, does the southern New England. One very good resource is the William and Mary Quarterly which has been very helpful.

Remarks: Modified: 05/20/2016

05/18/2016 --

Saturday, May 14, 2016

DNA and genealogy

Recently, Gardner Research was contacted with a DNA question. A researcher who had hit a brick wall over a decade ago decided to be subjected to DNA analysis. His results matched up with that of earlier kits that had been submitted.

Some of the results seemed to show relationships between various Gardner families. That is one of our interests. Details will follow at some point. Overall, there was quite a variety.

So, that was a sufficient trigger event to get us to start to look at DNA in terms of "all things Gardner." As we gather information, we will add to this list (year shown if not current). 
We will also get links to all of the Gardner-related research done so far.

Note: For this list, we will move over to a DNA Project page (at some point).

Remarks: Modified: 05/18/2016

05/15/2016 --Also, we got our attention directed to a lot of information about the Tudor relationship with the Gardners after Bosworth. We will summarize that and provide a bibliography.

05/17/2016 -- With Prof Hamilton's overview, our list covers the basis. He talks about using longitudinal studies within a family to assess change rates.

Sunday, May 1, 2016

May 1st

This is the day that Nathaniel Hawthorne memorialized.

Incidentally, the supposed uncle, Rev. John White, trashed the people who where there. Too, he sort of implied that the Cape Ann crew were of that ilk (not that I'm judging ;-). But, we know better.


Whence issues need to be at the fore of things, as this page shows up.

It is a copy of a now-deleted Wikipedia page that was copied to another site thereby cutting links related to updates.

You see why the web is a bloody mess? Notice the ads. The thing is to copy content and make money on eyes being lured there. Ah, how did this commerce ontology take precedence? Thanks, guys.

Remarks: Modified: 05/14/2016

05/14/2016 -- As we saw with the analysis related to Richard III's remains being identified and associated with descendants of his sister, modern technology does bring new things to the table. And, there were Welsh warriors present at Bosworth, some of whom may be Gardners. We have received access to additional material and will be presenting that story.

Thursday, April 14, 2016

Cape Ann, Retrospective

Cape Ann ought to get special consideration, in our view. The following is a brief summary that is meant to summarize some of the work done to date and to suggest further research and discussion.

Europeans were early in the visitation of New England, including Cape Ann. John Cabot reported in 1497 about his journey along the North American coast. By 1517, dozens of ships were fishing along the Newfoundland banks. Later, England, Spain, Portugal and France accounted for over three hundred boats that were fishing in the area.
During the 1580s, Sir Walter Raleigh made his attempt to establish a colony at Roanoke in the area now known as North Carolina. John White, the governor, went to England for supplies. On his return in October of 1590, he found his colony deserted. The fate of those early colonists remains a mystery.
By 1600, thousands of English boats were fishing the bays and coves of New England. Captain Bartholomew Gosnold had the honor of naming Cape Code and Martha’s Vineyard. Gosnold found that the area was pleasant enough during the summer of 1602, with an abundance of fish, to attempt a colony that did not take hold due to several problems such as conflict with the native population. 
Captain John Smith explored Maine in 1614 and suggested that the excellent fishing could be exploited by having stations. Also, he mapped out the area of Cape Ann (named by Prince Charles). 
The Plymouth experience was at a location not far from Cape Ann. Fishing crews from Plymouth did use the area for processing fish.
Cape Ann experience
In 1623/24, the Dorchester Company made an attempt to found a commercial venture in New England at Cape Ann. Thomas Gardner was in charge of the planting, according to Hubbard. A year later, Roger Conant came to the area as supervisor on the direction of the merchants in England. At that time, there had been growing conflict with the Cape Ann crew and those of Plymouth due to differences in opinion concerning who had authority in the area. Conant is noted as arriving in time to play peacemaker. Too, the venture never found commercial success.
The Cape Ann crew did succeed in establishing themselves, by the time of Conant’s arrival, by overwintering twice. A group had spent the summer of 1623 fishing in the area. Part of this group remained and awaited the coming of the party the next year. In 1624, a house was erected using, in part, material brought from England. Too, they planted crops which were sufficient to support the group given that we have no record of the deaths that occurred later when the influx swamped the local capacity to support the population.
This house, later, was seen by Higginson in Salem and termed the great house. Conant got access to the house upon his arrival. Prior to that, the occupants may have been Gardner and family. With Conant coming in to take charge, there was the first of several transitions in power that were to come.
Salem move (where was Thomas and his family?)
By 1626, Conant had determined that Cape Ann was not suitable for supporting the commercial expectations of the company. Hence, he asked for and got permission to move the Cape Ann crew to the area that became Salem. He and those who went with him were later to be called “old planters” to distinguish them from those newcomers who came after the arrival of John Endicott in 1628.  
Many have asked questions pertaining to the short list of “old planters” since many of the Cape Ann crew are not on the list. The Paine sisters, for instance, suggested that Thomas Gardner may have returned to the old country.  Other stories abound.
When John Winthrop showed up on 1630, his party stopped on Salem. They were welcomed with a feast, in the Great House. Too, the party went over to Cape Ann for strawberries.
A proper retrospective would have Thomas staying in Cape Ann, using the house, and keeping the plantings properly maintained. 
Old planters (Thomas not in the group)
Craddock wrote to Endicott that he ought to soothe the feathers of Conant and friends who had worried that they would lose their privileges of being free men. Each got a grant of a thousand acres. Thomas Gardner was not of that group of worriers.
When Endicott came over, he visited Cape Ann and saw the house which was occupied by Thomas and family. After the house was moved to Salem, Thomas would have moved with his family. In 1629, Endicott mentions Mr. Gardner in a letter to London.
Old Planter Society
In the latter part of the 19th century, as the 300 anniversary of the arrival loomed, there was much interest in the colonial ancestors around and about the country. Many families got acquainted with their family history and wrote books.
Frank A. Gardner, M.D. authored a book on his genealogy. Too, he, and several illustrious colleagues were instrumental in establishing an Old PlanterSociety. Dr. Gardner also established the second try of the MassachusettsMagazine which published for ten-years. One section dealt with history and genealogy, including meetings of Societies. One discussion brought up during this time was that the Cape Ann crew had been forgotten in history and had not been given the proper credit. Also, Dr. Gardner tried to get Thomas Gardner and others on the old planter list.
The Old Planter Society became associated with the Balch family which has had regular meetings in Beverly over the years.
In review, we can describe how Thomas Gardner, with his family, remained in Cape Ann after Conant left with the “old planters” crew. There were plantings to attend. Too, the house which was the first two-story structure in New England would have been available.
One might consider that this “solitary” time on Cape Ann was the first example of an idyllic life experience. Essentially, there would have been no church and no preacher. There were peaceful relationships with the natives. Too, the area was still supporting fishing.
Hence, Cape Ann would have given us the first experience of the American Dream. That is, an effective pair of a man and his spouse in a non-turbulent environment would have been free to pursue those ideals we later see in writing.
The upcoming 400th anniversaries ought to encourage re-looks such as this which represents the start of a series that will argue the importance of Cape Ann. 

Remarks: Modified: 04/15/2016

04/14/2016 --

Thursday, March 31, 2016

More on the Gold Rush

Last year, we published an article about a barque, the Bostonian, that wrecked off the Oregon coast in 1850. Near the wreck site, Gardiner, OR was founded. The barque was owned by H. D. Gardner.

The book, Seeing the Eliphant, that was published in 2010 was about his niece, Rebecca. She married James W. White. The couple was of those who ventured to California during the time of the Gold Rush.

We are researching to determine how the couple went west. But, they went by either of the sea routes. Of late, we have been looking into details about the land route.

Remarks: Modified: 03/31/2016

03/31/2016 --

Saturday, March 5, 2016

Gardner Junction

In the last post (Trails west), we looked at ways to get from the East Coast to the West Coast prior to the modern age. Of course, the choices were by land (below) or sea. In terms of the latter, one could cut across Central America or take the long journey around the end of South America. We can show examples of each of these.

Now, the Natives were in all areas of the country prior to the arrival of the Europeans. Then, there were many mountain men and other explorers around and about. Lewis & Clark was the first organized party sent from the U.S. Spain had already ventured inward from the West Coast and from Mexico. Coronado ended up not far from Gardner Junction.

But, the Trails are, by right, the focus of many as they think of western travel. There were several ways to get to the KC area, but that was the launching point. And, not long after, there was a split at Gardner Junction which is just west of Gardner, KS. This map illustrates how the Trails went after the split.

It comes from the National Park Service site which provides three maps plus other graphics related to the subject. One of these deals with the advent of the railroad. With the transcontinental travel via rail being available, the traffic on the Trails ceased.

Remarks: Modified: 04/02/2016

04/02/2016 -- Map showing Gardner Junction and the split of the trails west of Gardner, KS

Thursday, March 3, 2016

Trails west

In 2014, we did some research related to the origins of Gardner, OR. An article in The Essex Genealogist (TEG, v 35, no 2) and The Gardner Annals (TGA, Vol II, No 1) provided details about the ship (barque Bostonian) that wrecked at that site, its owner (Henry D. Gardiner), and some genealogical information. Henry was a descendant of George of Rhode Island, but his wives were descendants of Thomas of Salem.

Prior to the time that the ship left Boston, it had run up and down the east coast and points further. In the same year of the shipwreck, the Bostonian had been New Zealand.

Last year, Philbrick's book about the whaling ship, Essex, that was out of Nantucket, was made into a movie. Recently, I read the book (only saw the preview of the movie). I don't know if the movie went into the cannibalistic events, however they are described in Philbrick's book. This gives one pause or ought to. But, we'll not go further into the subject. The book is exemplary due to its attention to detail plus to its copious notes.

However, there are some humorous notes. Philbrick talked about the loading process that preceded the voyage. Too, the crew had to be put together. Of course, Nantucket'ers were preferred but scarce. So, they had to cast a wide net to get the manpower. As you would expect, many on the crew would be newbies (tenderfoot out west - see below). Philbrick writes about the Captain having to be out on deck during departure so as to direct the crew. And, it sounded like it could be like Keystone Kops. So, embarrassing to the old salt.

You see, everyone on Nantucket would know when a ship was leaving. And, they would all be down to watch the spectacle. Now, a ship in full sail and under control is a sight to behold. Yet, that would not be the case. And, Philbrick wrote about the Captain being aware that those with long-glasses could watch the going-ons for a long while until the ship was out of sight.

The book is a good read.

Now, on another subject, the Bostonian went from Boston to San Francisco in 1849. It left in July and arrived in January 1850. That was the long way to S.F. by sea (if it were the only one open to the flower children, 1967 would not have happened). Another sea method was to go down by ship to Central American, cross over, and then back up the left coast by ship. That required two ships, at least. The journey across Central America was arduous. Also, there were things of concern, such as diseases, thieves, and other perils. Many lost their fortune on the way back after having found success in California's gold mines. Some disappeared.        

Henry D. Gardiner (and, Gardiner, OR)


But, there was another way to the west coast: moving oneself over land. Last year, we looked at Gardner, KS. Some say that it got its name from the Governor of Massachusetts (Henry Joseph Gardner - descendant of Richard of Woburn) at the time that a group of New Englanders came to the area. They founded Lawrence, home of KU.

Gardner is not far out of Independence which was the starting point for the trails. They were together until west of Gardner. Then, the Oregon (California) bound wagons went by Lawrence on their way west. The Santa Fe trail headed southwest.

One thing to note is that from Independence, MO to Fort Larned, KS, nowadays, can be done by car in the matter of hours. It is a little less than 300 miles. A lot of it can be done by Interstate Highway. Back in the days, the wagons took three weeks (as in, 21 days) to do that trip. And, it was constant work every day.

On the trails west were Thomas Gardner descendants. Many people stayed at locations that they passed. That was how some cities grew. All along the trails, we find little cities where people decided to stop and grow roots. The advent of the transcontinental railroad (1869 - last spike) saw the same sort of phenomenon.

There was another trail, though. That one was related the western movement of the Mormons from the area of Nauvoo, IL to Utah. Again, many of these travelers were from New England.


Why the interest? I have run across several diaries (published) from the time that we can look at in more detail. Many of the diary writers have ties back to New England and its roots. We have had an interest for some time to map out movements west. Some families have described movement to the south, first (Carolinas), before the western thrust.

Too, though, there are always reminders. New Mexico, as a State, was 100 years old just four years ago. It is one of the late comers in terms of statehood. But, it is a very old culture.

Coronado was there and in area of present-day Kansas, in 1541. That was long before there was New England activity. As we get toward the 400th, we will see lots of interest in regard to all of the different places and cultures that make up the current populace's history.  

Remarks: Modified: 04/02/2016

04/02/2016 -- Map showing Gardner Junction and the split of the trails west of Gardner, KS.