Phippen seems to suggest the two Thomas situation in his look at the "old planters" for the NEHGS. Perhaps, he was following Felt. Was Phippen's write up of Thomas the first extensive one? If so, we'll have to thank him somehow.
See Phippen's take on the "old planters" in Volume 1 (1859) of the Historical Collections (go to page 190 for his write up on Thomas Gardner). Notice that he has the second Thomas being the father of most of the kids that we think about (see image).
Aside: Recall that Dr. Frank mentioned that he did not find any support for this claim. However, it will have to be re-addressed with new look at the matter.
As we get more of these together, we might have to use categories. For now, we'll just gather former posts. Here are two that show the two Thomas Gardners: See the mention of Jamaica Plains, Benjamin Peirce.
Remarks: Modified: 10/13/2014
10/13/2014 -- Tabula raza, and more, will be of concern.